Codeine

codeine phosphatecodeine hydrochlorideCod'inecodeincodeine narcotic content numbersCough Syrup
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, coughing, and diarrhea.wikipedia
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Opiate

opiatesOpiate drugOpiate pathway
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, coughing, and diarrhea.
The psychoactive compounds found in the opium plant include morphine, codeine, and thebaine.

Paracetamol

acetaminophenPanadolTylenol PM
Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen.
The efficacy of paracetamol when used in combination with weak opioids (such as codeine) improved for about 50% of people, but with increases in the number experiencing side effects.

Opium

opium tradeopium addictionraw opium
Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
The latex also contains the closely related opiates codeine and thebaine, and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine.

Pierre Jean Robiquet

Pierre RobiquetPierre-Jean Robiquet
Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet.
He did this through recognizing the first of them, asparagine, in 1806, in the industry's adoption of industrial dyes, with the identification of alizarin in 1826, and in the emergence of modern medications, through the identification of codeine in 1832, a drug of widespread use with analgesic and antidiarrheal properties.

WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

World Health Organization's List of Essential MedicinesList of Essential MedicinesModel List of Essential Medicines
It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.

Laudanum

tincture of opiumlaudanineopium tincture
It is also used to treat diarrhea and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, although loperamide (which is available without a prescription for milder diarrhea), diphenoxylate, paregoric, or even laudanum are more frequently used to treat severe diarrhea.
Reddish-brown and extremely bitter, laudanum contains almost all of the opium alkaloids, including morphine and codeine.

Codeine/paracetamol

co-codamolTylenol 3Panadeine
Codeine is marketed as both a single-ingredient drug and in combination preparations with paracetamol (as co-codamol: e.g., brands Paracod, Panadeine, and the Tylenol-with-codeine series, including Tylenol 3 and 1,2, and 4); with aspirin (as co-codaprin); or with ibuprofen (as Nurofen Plus).
Codeine/acetaminophen, also known as co-codamol, is a compound analgesic consisting of a combination of codeine phosphate and paracetamol (acetaminophen).

Cough

coughingdry coughproductive cough
Codeine is used to treat mild to moderate pain and to relieve coughing.
Cough suppressants such as codeine or dextromethorphan are frequently prescribed, but have been demonstrated to have little effect.

Morphine

morphiamorphine addictionmorphine sulfate
Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine; how quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Instead of acting directly on the MOR, codeine functions as a prodrug of its major active metabolite morphine, which is a far more potent MOR agonist in comparison.
Morphine may also be metabolized into small amounts of normorphine, codeine, and hydromorphone.

Co-codaprin

pain killer of the same name
Codeine is marketed as both a single-ingredient drug and in combination preparations with paracetamol (as co-codamol: e.g., brands Paracod, Panadeine, and the Tylenol-with-codeine series, including Tylenol 3 and 1,2, and 4); with aspirin (as co-codaprin); or with ibuprofen (as Nurofen Plus).
Co-codaprin (BAN) is a non-proprietary name used to denote a compound analgesic, a combination of codeine phosphate with aspirin.

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, coughing, and diarrhea.
Symptoms of diarrhea-predominant IBS can be managed through a combination of dietary changes, soluble fiber supplements and medications such as loperamide or codeine.

Opioid overdose

heroin overdoseopioid-overdoseoverdose
Care should be used during breastfeeding, as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby.
In mothers who take codeine during breastfeeding, opioid overdoses have occurred in their baby.

Physical dependence

dependencedrug dependencyphysical
As with other opiate-based pain killers, chronic use of codeine can cause physical dependence.

Diclofenac

diclofenac sodiumVoltarenCambia
1, 2, 3, 4, and 5), naproxen, indomethacin, diclofenac, and others, as well as more complex mixtures, including such mixtures as aspirin + paracetamol + codeine ± caffeine ± antihistamines and other agents, such as those mentioned above.
Diclofenac can be combined with opioids if needed such as a fixed combination of diclofenac and codeine.

Oxycodone

OxyContinEukodalRoxicodone
Codeine has been used in the past as the starting material and prototype of a large class of mainly mild to moderately strong opioids; such as hydrocodone (1920 in Germany), oxycodone (1916 in Germany), dihydrocodeine (1908 in Germany), and its derivatives such as nicocodeine (1956 in Austria).
Those allergic to codeine may also be allergic to oxycodone.

Prodrug

pro-drugprodrugsinactive prodrug
Instead of acting directly on the MOR, codeine functions as a prodrug of its major active metabolite morphine, which is a far more potent MOR agonist in comparison.
However, in other cases, such as codeine and morphine, the administered drug is enzymatically activated to form sugar derivatives (morphine-glucuronides) that are more active than the parent compound.

Cancer pain

painbone cancer paincancer
Weak evidence indicates that it is useful in cancer pain, but it is associated with increased side effects.
Then, if complete pain relief is not achieved or disease progression necessitates more aggressive treatment, mild opioids such as codeine, dextropropoxyphene, dihydrocodeine or tramadol are added to the existing non-opioid regime.

CYP2D6

2D6cytochrome P450 2D6cytochrome p-450 cyp2d6
Also, no evidence indicates that CYP2D6 inhibition is useful in treating codeine dependence, though the metabolism of codeine to morphine (and hence further metabolism to glucuronide morphine conjugates) does have an effect on the abuse potential of codeine.

Hydrocodone

TussionexHycodandihydrocodeinone
Codeine has been used in the past as the starting material and prototype of a large class of mainly mild to moderately strong opioids; such as hydrocodone (1920 in Germany), oxycodone (1916 in Germany), dihydrocodeine (1908 in Germany), and its derivatives such as nicocodeine (1956 in Austria).
It is made from the opium poppy after it has been converted to codeine.

Opioid

opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesic
Codeine is an opioid.
The weak opioid codeine, in low doses and combined with one or more other drugs, is commonly available without a prescription and can be used to treat mild pain.

Over-the-counter drug

over-the-counterover the counterOTC
It is also used to treat diarrhea and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, although loperamide (which is available without a prescription for milder diarrhea), diphenoxylate, paregoric, or even laudanum are more frequently used to treat severe diarrhea.
Examples of these include some sleep aid tablets such as Nytol, human deworming tablets such as Mebendazole, painkillers with small amounts of codeine (up to 12.8 mg per tablet), and pseudoephedrine.

Active metabolite

active metabolitesactiveactive drug
Instead of acting directly on the MOR, codeine functions as a prodrug of its major active metabolite morphine, which is a far more potent MOR agonist in comparison.
Certain drugs such as codeine and tramadol have metabolites (morphine and O-desmethyltramadol respectively) that are stronger than the parent drug and in these cases the metabolite may be responsible for much of the therapeutic action of the parent drug.

Dihydrocodeine

DF118dicodideDihydrocodeine bitartrate
Codeine has been used in the past as the starting material and prototype of a large class of mainly mild to moderately strong opioids; such as hydrocodone (1920 in Germany), oxycodone (1916 in Germany), dihydrocodeine (1908 in Germany), and its derivatives such as nicocodeine (1956 in Austria).
As with codeine, intravenous administration should be avoided, as it could result in anaphylaxis and life-threatening pulmonary edema.

Ibuprofen brand names

NurofenNurofen PlusAlaxan
Codeine is marketed as both a single-ingredient drug and in combination preparations with paracetamol (as co-codamol: e.g., brands Paracod, Panadeine, and the Tylenol-with-codeine series, including Tylenol 3 and 1,2, and 4); with aspirin (as co-codaprin); or with ibuprofen (as Nurofen Plus).
Nurofen Plus is a pain relief medication based on codeine and ibuprofen.

Lightheadedness

presyncopelight-headednesslight-headed
Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness.
Narcotic drugs, such as codeine can also cause lightheadedness.