A report on MorphineOpiate and Codeine

A localized reaction to intravenous morphine caused by histamine release in the veins
Harvesting the poppy pod.
The recreational drug lean can be created with codeine syrup (pictured).
Before the Morphine by Santiago Rusiñol
A chart outlining the structural features that define opiates and opioids, including distinctions between semi-synthetic and fully synthetic opiate structures
Morphine Hydrochloride Ampoule for Veterinary Use
Latex bleeding from a freshly-scored seed pod
Chemical structure of morphine
Morphine biosynthesis in the opium poppy
Morphine addiction cure advertisement in the year 1900
Chemical structure of morphine. The benzylisoquinoline backbone is shown in green.
Morphine structure showing its standard ring lettering and carbon numbering system.
Same structure, but in a three-dimensional perspective.
First generation production of alkaloids from licit latex-derived opium
Friedrich Sertürner
Advertisement for curing morphine addiction, c. 1900
An ampoule of morphine with integral needle for immediate use. Also known as a "syrette". From WWII. On display at the Army Medical Services Museum.
Example of different morphine tablets
Two capsules (5 mg & 10 mg) of morphine sulfate extended- release
1 milliliter ampoule containing 10 mg of morphine

Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate family that is found naturally in opium, a dark brown resin in poppies (Papaver somniferum).

- Morphine

Codeine is an opiate and prodrug of morphine used to treat pain, coughing, and diarrhea.

- Codeine

The psychoactive compounds found in the opium plant include morphine, codeine, and thebaine.

- Opiate

Morphine may also be metabolized into small amounts of normorphine, codeine, and hydromorphone.

- Morphine
A localized reaction to intravenous morphine caused by histamine release in the veins

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Opium poppy seed pod exuding latex from a cut


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Dried latex obtained from the seed capsules of the opium poppy Papaver somniferum.

Dried latex obtained from the seed capsules of the opium poppy Papaver somniferum.

Opium poppy seed pod exuding latex from a cut
Poppy crop from the Malwa in India (probably Papaver somniferum var. album )
Opium users in Java during the Dutch colonial period c. 1870
Latin translation of Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, 1483
An artist's view of an Ottoman opium seller
An opium den in 18th-century China through the eyes of a Western artist
A Chinese opium house, photograph 1902
Destruction of opium at Humen, June 1839
British opium ships
British assault on Canton during the First Opium War, May 1841
Storage of opium at a British East India Company warehouse, c. 1850
The cover page of the book of The Truth about Opium Smoking
Map showing the amount of opium produced in China in 1908: The quote "We English, by the policy we have pursued, are morally responsible for every acre of land in China which is withdrawn from the cultivation of grain and devoted to that of the poppy; so that the fact of the growth of the drug in China ought only to increase our sense of responsibility." is by Lord Justice Fry.
Apothecary vessel for storage of opium as a pharmaceutical, Germany, 18th or 19th century
Modern vial of morphine first isolated from opium by Friedrich Sertürner
Harvesting opium
International drug routes
Afghanistan, Helmand province. A Marine greets local children working in the field of opium poppies near the base.
Afghanistan opium poppy cultivation, 1994–2016 (hectares)
200 g Spanish opium ball
An Akha man smokes a pipe containing opium mixed with tobacco

Approximately 12 percent of opium is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, which is processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for the illegal drug trade.

The latex also contains the closely related opiates codeine and thebaine, and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine.

Chemical structure of morphine, the prototypical opioid.


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Chemical structure of morphine, the prototypical opioid.
US. Top line represents the number of benzodiazepine deaths that also involved opioids. Bottom line represents benzodiazepine deaths that did not involve opioids.
Locants of the morphine molecule
INTA: selective agonist of KOR-DOR and KOR-MOR heteromers. Does not recruit β-arrestin II. Antinociceptive devoid of aversion, tolerance, and dependence in mice.
A sample of raw opium
US yearly deaths from all opioid drugs. Included in this number are opioid analgesics, along with heroin and illicit .<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving other, predominately Fentanyl.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>
US yearly deaths involving prescription opioids. is a category dominated by illegally acquired fentanyl, and has been excluded.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths involving heroin.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

Opioids include opiates, an older term that refers to such drugs derived from opium, including morphine itself.

The weak opioid codeine, in low doses and combined with one or more other drugs, is commonly available without a prescription and can be used to treat mild pain.

Papaver somniferum

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Species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.

Species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.

Papaver rhoeas L. - flower. Many people confuse this weed poppy with Papaver somniferum.
Papaver somniferum plant showing the typical glaucous appearance
Papaver somniferum flower
Close-up of the center of the flower
Polish makowiec, a nut roll filled with poppy seed paste
Dried poppy seed pods and stems (plate), and seeds (bowl)
Capsule of Papaver somniferum showing latex (opium) exuding from incision
A red opium poppy flower used for ornamental purposes
Czech blue poppy flower
Czech blue poppy seeds
Opium poppy fields near Metheringham, Lincolnshire, England
Dried blue, gray, and white poppy seeds used for pastries in Germany
White poppy seeds, magnified

Opium contains a class of naturally occurring alkaloids known as opiates, that include morphine, codeine, thebaine, oripavine, papaverine and noscapine.


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Thebaine (paramorphine), also known as codeine methyl enol ether, is an opiate alkaloid, its name coming from the Greek Θῆβαι, Thēbai (Thebes), an ancient city in Upper Egypt.

A minor constituent of opium, thebaine is chemically similar to both morphine and codeine, but has stimulatory rather than depressant effects.