Legal systems of the world. Common law countries are in several shades of pink, corresponding to variations in common law systems.
Hardcover of the 1917 Code of Canon Law
A view of Westminster Hall in the Palace of Westminster, London, early 19th century.
A 16th century edition of Corpus Juris Civilis Romani (1583)
USCA: some annotated volumes of the official compilation and codification of federal statutes.
The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution for a country, containing 395 articles, 12 schedules, numerous amendments and 117,369 words.
Sir William Blackstone as illustrated in his Commentaries on the Laws of England.

In common law systems, such as that of English law, codification is the process of converting and consolidating judge-made law into statute law.

- Codification (law)

Black's Law Dictionary 10th Ed., definition 2, differentiates "common law" jurisdictions and legal systems from "civil law" or "code" jurisdictions.

- Common law
Legal systems of the world. Common law countries are in several shades of pink, corresponding to variations in common law systems.

5 related topics

Alpha

Legal systems of the world. Civil law based systems are in turquoise.

Civil law (legal system)

Legal system originating in mainland Europe and adopted in much of the world.

Legal system originating in mainland Europe and adopted in much of the world.

Legal systems of the world. Civil law based systems are in turquoise.

The civil law system is intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, and with core principles codified into a referable system, which serves as the primary source of law.

The civil law system is often contrasted with the common law system, which originated in medieval England, whose intellectual framework historically came from uncodified judge-made case law, and gives precedential authority to prior court decisions.

Cicero, author of the classic book The Laws, attacks Catiline for attempting a coup in the Roman Senate.

Roman law

Legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c.

Legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c.

Cicero, author of the classic book The Laws, attacks Catiline for attempting a coup in the Roman Senate.
Title page of a late 16th-century edition of the Digesta, part of Emperor Justinian's Corpus Juris Civilis
Legal systems of the world. Blue is based on Roman law.

The historical importance of Roman law is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in many legal systems influenced by it, including common law.

The Codex Theodosianus (438 AD) was a codification of Constantian laws.

The Royal Courts of Justice (main building pictured) is on the Strand in London. Together with its adjacent Thomas More Building and its outpost Rolls Building on Fetter Lane, it is the main seat of the High Court of Justice and the ordinary seat of the Court of Appeal.

English law

The Royal Courts of Justice (main building pictured) is on the Strand in London. Together with its adjacent Thomas More Building and its outpost Rolls Building on Fetter Lane, it is the main seat of the High Court of Justice and the ordinary seat of the Court of Appeal.
Statue of Lady Justice on the dome of the Central Criminal Court of England and Wales in the City of London (the "Old Bailey")
Sir William Blackstone in 1774, after his appointment as a Justice of the Court of King's Bench
Map of the British Empire under Queen Victoria at the end of the nineteenth century. "Dominions" refers to all territories belonging to the Crown.
The former Middlesex Guildhall in Parliament Square is the location of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.

English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.

Not being a civil law system, it has no comprehensive codification.

Jurisdiction

Legal term for the authority granted to a legal entity to enact justice.

Legal term for the authority granted to a legal entity to enact justice.

This theory regards international and municipal law as separate systems so that the municipal courts can only apply international law either when it has been incorporated into municipal law or when the courts incorporate international law on their own motion. In the United Kingdom, for example, a treaty is not effective until it has been incorporated at which time it becomes enforceable in the courts by any private citizen, where appropriate, even against the UK Government. Otherwise the courts have a discretion to apply international law where it does not conflict with statute or the common law. The constitutional principle of parliamentary supremacy permits the legislature to enact any law inconsistent with any international treaty obligations even though the government is a signatory to those treaties.

The primary distinctions between areas of jurisdiction are codified at a national level.

Coin of the Rashidun Caliphate. Dated AH 36 (AD 656). Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrau II, bismillah in margin/ Fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; In many cases, reliefs and pictures, which were not a problem at first, considered sin by the interpretations of the ulama, and symbols representing other faiths are considered blasphemy, and are completely excluded from social life later.

Sharia

Body of religious law that forms part of the Islamic tradition.

Body of religious law that forms part of the Islamic tradition.

Coin of the Rashidun Caliphate. Dated AH 36 (AD 656). Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrau II, bismillah in margin/ Fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; In many cases, reliefs and pictures, which were not a problem at first, considered sin by the interpretations of the ulama, and symbols representing other faiths are considered blasphemy, and are completely excluded from social life later.
The jurists of Iran, (Grand Ayatollahs / ayetullâhi'l-uzmâ). Faqih is a title given to the ulama who derive social rules from the texts of the Qur'an and hadith.
Juristic exchange between Abu Dawood and Ibn Hanbal. One of the oldest literary manuscripts of the Islamic world, dated October 879 A.D.
Turkish mufti (17th-century Spanish drawing)
Execution of a Moroccan woman (Sol Hachuel) on the grounds of leaving Islam (apostasy) painting by Alfred Dehodencq
Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand (est. 1422)
The poet Saadi and a dervish go to settle their quarrel before a judge (16th century Persian miniature)
An unhappy wife complains to the kadı about her husband's impotence (18th century Ottoman miniature)
Warren Hastings initiated far-reaching legal reforms in the British India
An Ottoman courtroom (1879 A.D. drawing)
Mahkamah Syariyah (Sharia court) in Aceh, Indonesia
Muhammad Abduh exercised a powerful influence on liberal reformist thought
Shariah Court in Malacca, Malaysia.
Taliban religious police beating a woman in Kabul on 26 August 2001, as reported by RAWA. for opening her burqa (Face).
Protest against Sharia in the United Kingdom (2014)
Countries that criminalize apostasy from Islam as of 2013. Some Muslim-majority countries impose the death penalty or a prison sentence for apostasy from Islam, or ban non-Muslims from proselytizing.
Same-sex intercourse illegal:
Al-Qaeda ideologues have used their interpretation of sharia to justify terrorist attacks
13th century slave market, Yemen. Slaves and concubines are considered as possessions in Sharia; they can be bought, sold, rented, gifted, shared, and inherited when owners die.
Manuscripts found in Sana'a. The "subtexts" revealed using UV light are very different from today's Qur'an. Gerd R. Puin believed this to mean an evolving text. A similar phrase is used by Lawrence Conrad for biography of Muhammad. Because, according to his studies, Islamic scientific view on the date of birth of the Prophet until the second century A.H. had exhibited a diversity of 85 years.

These translations enabled British judges to pass verdicts in the name of Islamic law based on a combination of Sharia rules and common law doctrines, and eliminated the need to rely on consultation by local ulema, whom they mistrusted.

Unlike common law, judges' verdicts do not set binding precedents under the principle of stare decisis, and unlike civil law, Sharia is left to the interpretation in each case and has no formally codified universal statutes.