Codification (law)

Hardcover of the 1917 Code of Canon Law

Process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex of law.

- Codification (law)
Hardcover of the 1917 Code of Canon Law

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Legal systems of the world. Civil law based systems are in turquoise.

Civil law (legal system)

Legal system originating in mainland Europe and adopted in much of the world.

Legal system originating in mainland Europe and adopted in much of the world.

Legal systems of the world. Civil law based systems are in turquoise.

The civil law system is intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, and with core principles codified into a referable system, which serves as the primary source of law.

Legal systems of the world. Common law countries are in several shades of pink, corresponding to variations in common law systems.

Common law

Body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions.

Body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions.

Legal systems of the world. Common law countries are in several shades of pink, corresponding to variations in common law systems.
A view of Westminster Hall in the Palace of Westminster, London, early 19th century.
A 16th century edition of Corpus Juris Civilis Romani (1583)
USCA: some annotated volumes of the official compilation and codification of federal statutes.
The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution for a country, containing 395 articles, 12 schedules, numerous amendments and 117,369 words.
Sir William Blackstone as illustrated in his Commentaries on the Laws of England.

Black's Law Dictionary 10th Ed., definition 2, differentiates "common law" jurisdictions and legal systems from "civil law" or "code" jurisdictions.

Cicero, author of the classic book The Laws, attacks Catiline for attempting a coup in the Roman Senate.

Roman law

Legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c.

Legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c.

Cicero, author of the classic book The Laws, attacks Catiline for attempting a coup in the Roman Senate.
Title page of a late 16th-century edition of the Digesta, part of Emperor Justinian's Corpus Juris Civilis
Legal systems of the world. Blue is based on Roman law.

The Codex Theodosianus (438 AD) was a codification of Constantian laws.

National coat of arms

United States Code

National coat of arms
A few volumes of an annotated version of the United States Code

The Code of Laws of the United States of America (variously abbreviated to Code of Laws of the United States, United States Code, U.S. Code, U.S.C., or USC) is the official compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal statutes of the United States.

Countries with a collection of laws known formally or informally as 'Civil Code'

Civil code

Codification of private law relating to property, family, and obligations.

Codification of private law relating to property, family, and obligations.

Countries with a collection of laws known formally or informally as 'Civil Code'
The first edition of the Swiss Civil Code (around 1907). In 1911, it became the first civil code to include commercial law (Swiss Code of Obligations).

The concept of codification dates back to ancient Babylon.

A full set of the Babylonian Talmud

Halakha

Collective body of Jewish religious laws which is derived from the written and Oral Torah.

Collective body of Jewish religious laws which is derived from the written and Oral Torah.

A full set of the Babylonian Talmud
Sefer Torah at Glockengasse Synagogue (museum exhibits), Cologne
Hasidim walk to the synagogue, Rehovot, Israel.
A mixed-gender, egalitarian Conservative service at Robinson's Arch, Western Wall
Set of Mishneh Torah
Shulchan Aruch HaRav
Peninei Halakha Set
An illuminated manuscript of Arba'ah Turim from 1435

The Mishnah, composed by rabbi Judah the Prince, in 200 CE, as a basic outline of the state of the Oral Law in his time. This was the framework upon which the Talmud was based; the Talmud's dialectic analysis of the content of the Mishna (gemara; completed c. 500) became the basis for all later halakhic decisions and subsequent codes.

Coin of the Rashidun Caliphate. Dated AH 36 (AD 656). Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrau II, bismillah in margin/ Fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; In many cases, reliefs and pictures, which were not a problem at first, considered sin by the interpretations of the ulama, and symbols representing other faiths are considered blasphemy, and are completely excluded from social life later.

Sharia

Body of religious law that forms part of the Islamic tradition.

Body of religious law that forms part of the Islamic tradition.

Coin of the Rashidun Caliphate. Dated AH 36 (AD 656). Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrau II, bismillah in margin/ Fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; In many cases, reliefs and pictures, which were not a problem at first, considered sin by the interpretations of the ulama, and symbols representing other faiths are considered blasphemy, and are completely excluded from social life later.
The jurists of Iran, (Grand Ayatollahs / ayetullâhi'l-uzmâ). Faqih is a title given to the ulama who derive social rules from the texts of the Qur'an and hadith.
Juristic exchange between Abu Dawood and Ibn Hanbal. One of the oldest literary manuscripts of the Islamic world, dated October 879 A.D.
Turkish mufti (17th-century Spanish drawing)
Execution of a Moroccan woman (Sol Hachuel) on the grounds of leaving Islam (apostasy) painting by Alfred Dehodencq
Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand (est. 1422)
The poet Saadi and a dervish go to settle their quarrel before a judge (16th century Persian miniature)
An unhappy wife complains to the kadı about her husband's impotence (18th century Ottoman miniature)
Warren Hastings initiated far-reaching legal reforms in the British India
An Ottoman courtroom (1879 A.D. drawing)
Mahkamah Syariyah (Sharia court) in Aceh, Indonesia
Muhammad Abduh exercised a powerful influence on liberal reformist thought
Shariah Court in Malacca, Malaysia.
Taliban religious police beating a woman in Kabul on 26 August 2001, as reported by RAWA. for opening her burqa (Face).
Protest against Sharia in the United Kingdom (2014)
Countries that criminalize apostasy from Islam as of 2013. Some Muslim-majority countries impose the death penalty or a prison sentence for apostasy from Islam, or ban non-Muslims from proselytizing.
Same-sex intercourse illegal:
Al-Qaeda ideologues have used their interpretation of sharia to justify terrorist attacks
13th century slave market, Yemen. Slaves and concubines are considered as possessions in Sharia; they can be bought, sold, rented, gifted, shared, and inherited when owners die.
Manuscripts found in Sana'a. The "subtexts" revealed using UV light are very different from today's Qur'an. Gerd R. Puin believed this to mean an evolving text. A similar phrase is used by Lawrence Conrad for biography of Muhammad. Because, according to his studies, Islamic scientific view on the date of birth of the Prophet until the second century A.H. had exhibited a diversity of 85 years.

Unlike common law, judges' verdicts do not set binding precedents under the principle of stare decisis, and unlike civil law, Sharia is left to the interpretation in each case and has no formally codified universal statutes.

The Royal Courts of Justice (main building pictured) is on the Strand in London. Together with its adjacent Thomas More Building and its outpost Rolls Building on Fetter Lane, it is the main seat of the High Court of Justice and the ordinary seat of the Court of Appeal.

English law

Common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.

Common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.

The Royal Courts of Justice (main building pictured) is on the Strand in London. Together with its adjacent Thomas More Building and its outpost Rolls Building on Fetter Lane, it is the main seat of the High Court of Justice and the ordinary seat of the Court of Appeal.
Statue of Lady Justice on the dome of the Central Criminal Court of England and Wales in the City of London (the "Old Bailey")
Sir William Blackstone in 1774, after his appointment as a Justice of the Court of King's Bench
Map of the British Empire under Queen Victoria at the end of the nineteenth century. "Dominions" refers to all territories belonging to the Crown.
The former Middlesex Guildhall in Parliament Square is the location of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.

Not being a civil law system, it has no comprehensive codification.

Publication in the Reich Law Gazette on 24 August 1896

Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch

Civil code of Germany.

Civil code of Germany.

Publication in the Reich Law Gazette on 24 August 1896

It was put into effect on 1 January 1900, and has been the central codification of Germany's civil law ever since.

Title page of volume 125

United States Statutes at Large

Official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress.

Official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress.

Title page of volume 125
A few volumes of the Statutes at Large

U.S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws (Statutes at Large), and codification (United States Code).