Coeliac disease

celiac diseaseceliac spruecoeliacceliacgluten-sensitive enteropathyCeliac Awareness Monthceliac diseasescoeliac sprueautoimmuneCD
Coeliac disease or celiac disease is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.wikipedia
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Malabsorption

malabsorption syndromeintestinal malabsorptionmalabsorption of nutrients
Classic symptoms include gastrointestinal problems such as chronic diarrhoea, abdominal distention, malabsorption, loss of appetite and among children failure to grow normally.
However, generalized malabsorption of multiple dietary nutrients develops when the disease process is extensive, thus disturbing several digestive and absorptive processes, as occurs in coeliac disease with extensive involvement of the small intestine.

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
Classic symptoms include gastrointestinal problems such as chronic diarrhoea, abdominal distention, malabsorption, loss of appetite and among children failure to grow normally.
These include lactose intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis, hyperthyroidism, bile acid diarrhea, and a number of medications.

Wheat

Triticumcorndwarf wheat
Coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to gluten, a group of various proteins found in wheat and in other grains such as barley and rye.
In a small part of the general population, gluten – the major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease, noncoeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, and dermatitis herpetiformis.

Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma

Enteropathy type T-cell lymphomaenteropathy-associated T cell lymphomalymphoma (EATL)
Coeliac disease leads to an increased risk of both adenocarcinoma and lymphoma of the small bowel (enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) or other non-Hodgkin's lymphomas).
Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL), previously termed enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma, type I and at one time termed enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma (ETTL), is a complication of coeliac disease in which a malignant T-cell lymphoma develops in areas of the small intestine afflicted by the disease's intense inflammation.

Gluten-free diet

gluten-freegluten freegluten free diet
The only known effective treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet, which leads to recovery of the intestinal mucosa, improves symptoms and reduces risk of developing complications in most people.
Gluten may cause both gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms for those with gluten-related disorders, including coeliac disease (CD), non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), and wheat allergy.

Gluten

glutinouswheat glutenglutin
Coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to gluten, a group of various proteins found in wheat and in other grains such as barley and rye. Coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to gliadins and glutenins (gluten proteins) found in wheat, and similar proteins found in the crops of the tribe Triticeae (which includes other common grains such as barley and rye) and the tribe Aveneae (oats).
Gluten can produce a broad spectrum of gluten-related disorders, including coeliac disease in 1–2% of the general population, non-coeliac gluten sensitivity in 6–10% of the general population, dermatitis herpetiformis, gluten ataxia and other neurological disorders.

Irritable bowel syndrome

IBSSplenic flexure syndromeSplenic-flexure syndrome
Frequently, the symptoms are ascribed to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), only later to be recognised as coeliac disease.
Other conditions that may present similarly include celiac disease, microscopic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, bile acid malabsorption, and colon cancer.

Wheat allergy

wheatBaker's asthmaWheat hypersensitivity
While the disease is caused by a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins, it is distinct from wheat allergy, which is much rarer.
The most severe response is exercise/aspirin induced anaphylaxis attributed to one omega gliadin that is a relative of the protein that causes celiac disease.

Lactose intolerance

lactose intolerantlactose-intolerantlactase deficiency
As the bowel becomes more damaged, a degree of lactose intolerance may develop.
Secondary lactose intolerance is due to injury to the small intestine such as from infection, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, or other diseases.

Systemic disease

systemicsystemic infectionmultisystem disease
There may be mild or absent gastrointestinal symptoms, a wide number of symptoms involving any part of the body or no obvious symptoms.

Dermatitis herpetiformis

Duhring's diseaseskin condition
Dermatitis herpetiformis is included in other recommendations.
DH is a cutaneous manifestation of Coeliac disease.

Folate

folic acidfolate biosynthesisone carbon pool by folate
Folate deficiency can be caused by unhealthy diets that do not include enough vegetables and other folate-rich foods; diseases in which folates are not well absorbed in the digestive system (such as Crohn's disease or celiac disease); some genetic disorders that affect levels of folate; and certain medicines (such as phenytoin, sulfasalazine, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole).

Abdominal pain

stomach acheupset stomachabdominal discomfort
Abdominal pain, cramping, bloating with abdominal distension (thought to be due to fermentative production of bowel gas), and mouth ulcers may be present.

Autoantibody

autoantibodiesauto-antibodiesanti-drug antibodies
Upon exposure to gluten, an abnormal immune response may lead to the production of several different autoantibodies that can affect a number of different organs.

Megaloblastic anemia

megaloblastic anaemiamegaloblastic anaemiasa type of anemia

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
If untreated, it may result in cancers such as intestinal lymphoma and a slightly increased risk of early death.
There is an association between celiac disease and an increased risk of all cancers.

Microscopic colitis

Coeliac disease is associated with a number of other medical conditions, many of which are autoimmune disorders: diabetes mellitus type 1, hypothyroidism, primary biliary cholangitis, microscopic colitis, gluten ataxia, psoriasis, vitiligo, autoimmune hepatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and more.
A higher incidence of autoimmune diseases, for example arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, thyroid disorders, and celiac disease, has been reported in people with microscopic colitis.

Osteopenia

Diminished bone densityOsteopaeniaReduced bone mass
Osteopenia and osteoporosis, mildly and severely reduced bone mineral density, are often present in people with coeliac disease, and investigations to measure bone density may be performed at diagnosis, such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning, to identify risk of fracture and need for bone protection medication.
Osteopenia is also a common effect of coeliac disease, even among patients who are otherwise asymptomatic.

Delayed puberty

delayedpuberty inductiondelayed, reduced, or absent puberty
In absence of any other symptoms, short stature, delayed growth in height and weight, and/or delayed puberty may be the only clinical manifestations of certain chronic diseases including coeliac disease.

Aretaeus of Cappadocia

AretaeusArateus
The term "coeliac" is from the Greek κοιλιακός (koiliakós, "abdominal") and was introduced in the 19th century in a translation of what is generally regarded as an Ancient Greek description of the disease by Aretaeus of Cappadocia.
He wrote the first known description of celiac disease, naming it disease of the abdomen, koliakos.

Steatorrhea

steatorrhoeafatty stoolfatty feces
The classic symptoms of untreated coeliac disease include pale, loose, and greasy stool (steatorrhoea), and weight loss or failure to gain weight.
Other tests include the (13)C-mixed triglycerides test and fecal elastase, to detect possible fat maldigestion due to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, or various specific tests to detect other causes of malabsorption such as celiac disease.

Failure to thrive

growth failurepoor growthfailed to thrive
Classic symptoms include gastrointestinal problems such as chronic diarrhoea, abdominal distention, malabsorption, loss of appetite and among children failure to grow normally.

Anemia

anaemiaanemicanaemic
This affects the absorption of nutrients, frequently leading to anaemia.

Gliadin

Coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to gliadins and glutenins (gluten proteins) found in wheat, and similar proteins found in the crops of the tribe Triticeae (which includes other common grains such as barley and rye) and the tribe Aveneae (oats).
There are three main types of gliadin (α, γ, and ω), to which the body is intolerant in coeliac (or celiac) disease.