Coeliac disease

Biopsy of small bowel showing coeliac disease manifested by blunting of villi, crypt hypertrophy, and lymphocyte infiltration of crypts
DQ α5-β2 -binding cleft with a deamidated gliadin peptide (yellow), modified from
HLA region of chromosome 6
Illustration of deamidated α-2 gliadin's 33mer, amino acids 56–88, showing the overlapping of three varieties of T-cell epitope
The active form of tissue transglutaminase (green) bound to a gluten peptide mimic (blue).
Immunofluorescence staining pattern of endomysial antibodies on a monkey oesophagus tissue sample.
Endoscopic still of duodenum of a person with coeliac disease showing scalloping of folds and "cracked-mud" appearance to mucosa
Schematic of the Marsh classification of upper jejunal pathology in coeliac disease.

Long-term autoimmune disorder, primarily affecting the small intestine, where individuals develop intolerance to gluten, present in foods such as wheat, rye and barley.

- Coeliac disease

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Condition of having at least three loose, liquid, or watery bowel movements each day.

An electron micrograph of rotavirus, the cause of nearly 40% of hospitalizations from diarrhea in children under five
Bristol stool chart
Diagram of the human gastrointestinal tract
Poverty often leads to unhygienic living conditions, as in this community in the Indian Himalayas. Such conditions promote contraction of diarrheal diseases, as a result of poor sanitation and hygiene.
A person consuming oral rehydration solution
Deaths due to diarrhoeal diseases per million persons in 2012

These include lactose intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis, hyperthyroidism, bile acid diarrhea, and a number of medications.


State arising from abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal tract.

Whipple's disease: Alcian blue with apparently eosin counterstain enlarged villus with many macrophages
Small intestine : major site of absorption
Biopsy of small bowel showing coeliac disease manifested by blunting of villi, crypt hyperplasia, and lymphocyte infiltration of crypts.

However, generalized malabsorption of multiple dietary nutrients develops when the disease process is extensive, thus disturbing several digestive and absorptive processes, as occurs in coeliac disease with extensive involvement of the small intestine.

Failure to thrive

Failure to thrive (FTT), also known as weight faltering or faltering growth, indicates insufficient weight gain or absence of appropriate physical growth in children.

Disorders that cause difficulties absorbing or digesting nutrients, such as Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, or celiac disease, can present with abdominal symptoms.


Grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

Spikelets of a hulled wheat, einkorn
Woman harvesting wheat, Raise district, Madhya Pradesh, India
The smaller grain of wheat on the left, larger kernels of rye next, and triticale on the right – triticale grain is significantly larger than wheat.
Wheat harvest on the Palouse, Idaho, United States
Sheaved and stooked wheat
Traditional wheat sheafing machine
Left: Naked wheat, Bread wheat Triticum aestivum; Right: Hulled wheat, Einkorn, Triticum monococcum. Note how the einkorn ear breaks down into intact spikelets.
Sack of wheat grains
Model of a wheat grain, Botanical Museum Greifswald
Wheat is used in a wide variety of foods.
A map of worldwide wheat production.
Production of wheat (2019)
Wheat prices in England, 1264-1996
Wheat spikelet with the three anthers sticking out
Rust-affected wheat seedlings
Green wheat a month before harvest
Young wheat crop in a field near Solapur, Maharashtra, India
Wheat crop near Solapur, India
alt=Wheat Farm in Behbahan, Iran|Wheat farm in Behbahan, Iran
A combine harvester threshes the wheat, crushes the chaff, then blows chaff across the field. The combine loads the threshed wheat onto a truck or trailer while moving
Two tractors deploying a sealed storage method for newly harvested wheat.
Map depicting acreage devoted to wheat in Ohio, 1923
Wheatfield near Weethalle, NSW
Annual agricultural production of wheat, measured in tonnes in 2014.<ref>{{cite web|title=Wheat production|url=|website=Our World in Data|access-date=5 March 2020}}</ref>
Average wheat yields, measured in tonnes per hectare in 2014.<ref>{{cite web|title=Wheat yields|url=|website=Our World in Data|access-date=5 March 2020}}</ref>

In a small part of the general population, gluten – the major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease, noncoeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, and dermatitis herpetiformis.

Systemic disease

"Life-threatening disease" redirects here.

Many of the internal organs of the human body

Coeliac disease – an autoimmune disease triggered by gluten consumption, which may involve several organs and cause a variety of symptoms, or be completely asymptomatic.

Anorexia (symptom)

Medical term for a loss of appetite.

Celiac disease

Gluten-free diet

Nutritional plan that strictly excludes gluten, which is a mixture of proteins found in wheat (and all of its species and hybrids, such as spelt, kamut, and triticale), as well as barley, rye, and oats.

One breadcrumb of this size contains enough gluten to reactivate the autoimmune response in people with coeliac disease when they are following a gluten-free diet, although obvious symptoms may not appear. Consuming gluten even in small quantities, which may be the result of inadvertent cross-contamination, impede recovery in people with gluten-related disorders.
Quinoa is a pseudocereal that is gluten-free.
Gluten-free bread made of a mixture of flours like buckwheat flour, tapioca flour, millet flour and psyllium seed husks. Special flour mixes can be bought for bread-making purposes.
Gluten-free rice flour
A grocery store's aisle of gluten-free food items.

Gluten may cause both gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms for those with gluten-related disorders, including coeliac disease (CD), non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), and wheat allergy.

Lactose intolerance

Common condition caused by a decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products.

Lactose is made up of two simple sugars
Rough rates of lactose intolerance in different regions of the world
An estimate of the percentage of adults that can digest lactose in the indigenous population of the Old World

Such injury could be the result of infection, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, or other diseases.


Classified asymptomatic if a patient tests as carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.

Pulmonary contusion due to trauma is an example of a condition that can be asymptomatic with half of people showing no signs at the initial presentation. The CT scan shows a pulmonary contusion (red arrow) accompanied by a rib fracture (purple arrow).

Coeliac disease

Irritable bowel syndrome

Functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by a group of symptoms accompanied together that include abdominal pain and changes in the consistency of bowel movements.

Drawing of the pain of IBS
Prevalence of protozoal infections in industrialized countries (United States and Canada) in the 21st century
Percentage of population with IBS reported in various studies in different countries (see sources in the table)

Other conditions that may present similarly include celiac disease, microscopic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, bile acid malabsorption, and colon cancer.