Coeliac disease

celiac diseasecoeliacceliacceliac spruespruecoeliac sprueCDCeliac disease (coeliac disease)celiac diseasesceliacs
Coeliac disease or celiac disease is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.wikipedia
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Malabsorption

malabsorption syndromeintestinal malabsorptionmalabsorption of nutrients
Classic symptoms include gastrointestinal problems such as chronic diarrhoea, abdominal distention, malabsorption, loss of appetite and among children failure to grow normally. Anaemia may develop in several ways: iron malabsorption may cause iron deficiency anaemia, and folic acid and vitamin B 12 malabsorption may give rise to megaloblastic anaemia.
However, generalized malabsorption of multiple dietary nutrients develops when the disease process is extensive, thus disturbing several digestive and absorptive processes, as occurs in coeliac disease with extensive involvement of the small intestine.

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
Classic symptoms include gastrointestinal problems such as chronic diarrhoea, abdominal distention, malabsorption, loss of appetite and among children failure to grow normally.
These include lactose intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, hyperthyroidism, bile acid diarrhea, and a number of medications.

Wheat

cornTriticumdwarf wheat
Coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to gluten, a group of various proteins found in wheat and in other grains such as barley and rye.
In a small part of the general population, gluten – the major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease, noncoeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, and dermatitis herpetiformis.

Gluten-free diet

gluten-freegluten freegluten free diet
The only known effective treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet, which leads to recovery of the intestinal mucosa, improves symptoms and reduces risk of developing complications in most people.
Gluten causes health problems for those with gluten-related disorders, including coeliac disease (CD), non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), and wheat allergy.

Irritable bowel syndrome

IBSbowelirritable bowel
Frequently, the symptoms are ascribed to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), only later to be recognised as coeliac disease; a small proportion of people with symptoms of IBS have underlying coeliac disease, and screening for coeliac disease is recommended for those with IBS symptoms.
Other conditions that may present similarly include celiac disease, microscopic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, bile acid malabsorption, and colon cancer.

Lactose intolerance

lactose intolerantlactose-intolerantlactase deficiency
As the bowel becomes more damaged, a degree of lactose intolerance may develop.
Secondary lactose intolerance is due to injury to the small intestine such as from infection, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, or other diseases.

Wheat allergy

Wheatallergic to wheatbaker's asthma
While the disease is caused by a permanent intolerance to wheat proteins, it is not a form of wheat allergy.
The most severe response is exercise/aspirin induced anaphylaxis attributed to one omega gliadin that is a relative of the protein that causes celiac disease.

Dermatitis herpetiformis

Duhring's diseaseskin condition
Dermatitis herpetiformis, an itchy cutaneous condition, has been linked to a transglutaminase enzyme in the skin, features small-bowel changes identical to those in coeliac disease, and may respond to gluten withdrawal even if no gastrointestinal symptoms are present.
A connection between DH and celiac disease was recognised in 1967, although the exact causal mechanism is not known.

Delayed puberty

delayedpuberty inductiondelayed, reduced, or absent puberty
Growth failure and/or pubertal delay in later childhood can occur even without obvious bowel symptoms or severe malnutrition. Evaluation of growth failure often includes coeliac screening.
In absence of any other symptoms, short stature, delayed growth in height and weight, and/or delayed puberty may be the only clinical manifestations of certain chronic diseases including coeliac disease.

Gluten

glutinouswheat glutenglutin
Coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to gluten, a group of various proteins found in wheat and in other grains such as barley and rye. Coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to gliadins and glutenins (gluten proteins) found in wheat, and similar proteins found in the crops of the tribe Triticeae (which includes other common grains such as barley and rye) and the tribe Aveneae (oats).
In a small part of the general human population, gluten can trigger adverse autoimmune reactions responsible for a broad spectrum of gluten-related disorders, including coeliac disease, non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia and dermatitis herpetiformis.

Systemic disease

systemicsystemic infectionmultisystem disease
There may be mild or absent gastrointestinal symptoms, a wide number of symptoms involving any part of the body or no obvious symptoms.
Coeliac disease – an autoimmune disease triggered by gluten consumption, which may involve several organs and cause a variety of symptoms, or be completely asymptomatic.

Megaloblastic anemia

megaloblastic anaemiamegaloblastic anaemiasanemia, megaloblastic
Anaemia may develop in several ways: iron malabsorption may cause iron deficiency anaemia, and folic acid and vitamin B 12 malabsorption may give rise to megaloblastic anaemia.
Coeliac disease

Microscopic colitis

Coeliac disease is associated with a number of other medical conditions, many of which are autoimmune disorders: diabetes mellitus type 1, hypothyroidism, primary biliary cholangitis, microscopic colitis, gluten ataxia, psoriasis, vitiligo, autoimmune hepatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and more.
A higher incidence of autoimmune diseases, for example arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, thyroid disorders, and celiac disease, has been reported in people with microscopic colitis.

Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma

enteropathy-associated T cell lymphomalymphoma (EATL)
Coeliac disease leads to an increased risk of both adenocarcinoma and lymphoma of the small bowel (enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) or other non-Hodgkin's lymphomas).
These cancerous T-cells are a possible consequence of refractory cases of coeliac disease or in chronic, untreated cases in genetically susceptible individuals.

Failure to thrive

growth failurepoor growthFailure to thrive (FTT)
Classic symptoms include gastrointestinal problems such as chronic diarrhoea, abdominal distention, malabsorption, loss of appetite and among children failure to grow normally. Growth failure and/or pubertal delay in later childhood can occur even without obvious bowel symptoms or severe malnutrition. Evaluation of growth failure often includes coeliac screening.
Endogenous (or "organic"):Causes are due to physical or mental issues with the child itself. It can include various inborn errors of metabolism. Problems with the gastrointestinal system such as excessive gas and acid reflux are painful conditions which may make the child unwilling to take in sufficient nutrition. Cystic fibrosis, diarrhea, liver disease, anemia or iron deficiency, Crohn's disease, and coeliac disease make it more difficult for the body to absorb nutrition. Other causes include physical deformities such as cleft palate and tongue tie. Milk allergies can cause endogenous FTT. FAS has also been associated with failure to thrive. Also the metabolism may be raised by parasites, asthma, urinary tract infections, and other fever-inducing infections, hyperthyroidism or congenital heart disease, so that it becomes difficult to get in sufficient calories to meet the higher caloric demands.

Gliadin

Coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to gliadins and glutenins (gluten proteins) found in wheat, and similar proteins found in the crops of the tribe Triticeae (which includes other common grains such as barley and rye) and the tribe Aveneae (oats).
There are three main types of gliadin (α, γ, and ω), to which the body is intolerant in coeliac (or celiac) disease.

Tropical sprue

spruesprue, tropical
The villous atrophy seen on biopsy may also be due to unrelated causes, such as tropical sprue, giardiasis and radiation enteritis.
It differs significantly from coeliac sprue.

Abdominal pain

stomach acheupset stomachstomachache
Abdominal pain and cramping, bloatedness with abdominal distension (thought to be due to fermentative production of bowel gas), and mouth ulcers may be present.
Digestive: peptic ulcer, lactose intolerance, celiac disease, food allergies

Autoantibody

autoantibodiesauto-antibodiesanti-drug antibodies
Upon exposure to gluten, an abnormal immune response may lead to the production of several different autoantibodies that can affect a number of different organs.

Malnutrition

malnourishednutritional deficienciesmalnourishment
Growth failure and/or pubertal delay in later childhood can occur even without obvious bowel symptoms or severe malnutrition. Evaluation of growth failure often includes coeliac screening.
This conditions may include Crohn's disease or untreated coeliac disease.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
If untreated, it may result in cancers such as intestinal lymphoma and a slightly increased risk of early death.
There is an association between celiac disease and an increased risk of all cancers.

Osteopenia

Reduced bone massDiminished bone density
Calcium and vitamin D malabsorption (and compensatory secondary hyperparathyroidism) may cause osteopenia (decreased mineral content of the bone) or osteoporosis (bone weakening and risk of fragility fractures).
Osteopenia is also a common effect of coeliac disease, even among patients who are otherwise asymptomatic.

Anemia

anaemiaanemicanaemic
This affects the absorption of nutrients, frequently leading to anaemia.
Gluten-related disorders: untreated celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Anemia can be the only manifestation of celiac disease, in absence of gastrointestinal or any other symptoms.

Autoimmune hepatitis

autoimmune liver diseaseautoimmune active chronic hepatitisautoimmune chronic hepatitis
Coeliac disease is associated with a number of other medical conditions, many of which are autoimmune disorders: diabetes mellitus type 1, hypothyroidism, primary biliary cholangitis, microscopic colitis, gluten ataxia, psoriasis, vitiligo, autoimmune hepatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and more.
Autoimmune hepatitis frequently appears associated with other autoimmune conditions, mainly celiac disease, vasculitis, and autoimmune thyroiditis.

Anti-transglutaminase antibodies

anti-tissue transglutaminaseanti-TG2antitransglutaminase antibodies
Anti-transglutaminase antibodies to the enzyme tissue transglutaminase (tTG) are found in the blood of the majority of people with classic symptoms and complete villous atrophy, but only in 70% of the cases with partial villous atrophy and 30% of the cases with minor mucosal lesions.
Antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (abbreviated as anti-tTG or anti-TG2) are found in patients with several conditions, including celiac disease, juvenile diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and various forms of arthritis.