The succinate dehydrogenase complex showing several cofactors, including flavin, iron–sulfur centers, and heme.
Simplified view of the cellular metabolism
The redox reactions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.
This nucleotide contains the five-carbon sugar deoxyribose (at center), a nucleobase called adenine (upper right), and one phosphate group (left). The deoxyribose sugar joined only to the nitrogenous base forms a <u title="Nucleotide">Deoxyribonucleoside called deoxyadenosine, whereas the whole structure along with the phosphate group is a <u title="Deoxyadenosine monophosphate" href="deoxyadenosine monophosphate">nucleotide, a constituent of DNA with the name deoxyadenosine monophosphate.
A simple [Fe2S2] cluster containing two iron atoms and two sulfur atoms, coordinated by four protein cysteine residues.
Structure of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a central intermediate in energy metabolism
UV absorption spectra of NAD and NADH.
Showing the arrangement of nucleotides within the structure of nucleic acids: At lower left, a monophosphate nucleotide; its nitrogenous base represents one side of a base-pair. At the upper right, four nucleotides form two base-pairs: thymine and adenine (connected by double hydrogen bonds) and guanine and cytosine (connected by triple hydrogen bonds). The individual nucleotide monomers are chain-joined at their sugar and phosphate molecules, forming two 'backbones' (a double helix) of nucleic acid, shown at upper left.
The redox reactions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.
Structure of a triacylglycerol lipid
Some metabolic pathways that synthesize and consume NAD in vertebrates. The abbreviations are defined in the text.
Structural elements of three nucleo tides —where one-, two- or three-phosphates are attached to the nucleo side (in yellow, blue, green) at center: 1st, the nucleotide termed as a nucleoside mono phosphate is formed by adding a phosphate (in red); 2nd, adding a second phosphate forms a nucleoside di phosphate; 3rd, adding a third phosphate results in a nucleoside tri phosphate. + The nitrogenous base (nucleobase) is indicated by "Base" and "glycosidic bond" (sugar bond). All five primary, or canonical, bases—the purines and pyrimidines—are sketched at right (in blue).
This is a diagram depicting a large set of human metabolic pathways.
Salvage pathways use three precursors for NAD+.
The synthesis of UMP. The color scheme is as follows: enzymes, <span style="color: rgb(219,155,36);">coenzymes, <span style="color: rgb(151,149,45);">substrate names , <span style="color: rgb(128,0,0);">inorganic molecules
Glucose can exist in both a straight-chain and ring form.
Rossmann fold in part of the lactate dehydrogenase of Cryptosporidium parvum, showing NAD in red, beta sheets in yellow, and alpha helices in purple.
The synthesis of IMP. The color scheme is as follows: enzymes, <span style="color: rgb(219,155,36);">coenzymes, <span style="color: rgb(151,149,45);">substrate names , <span style="color: rgb(227,13,196);">metal ions , <span style="color: rgb(128,0,0);">inorganic molecules
Structure of the coenzyme acetyl-CoA.The transferable acetyl group is bonded to the sulfur atom at the extreme left.
In this diagram, the hydride acceptor C4 carbon is shown at the top. When the nicotinamide ring lies in the plane of the page with the carboxy-amide to the right, as shown, the hydride donor lies either "above" or "below" the plane of the page. If "above" hydride transfer is class A, if "below" hydride transfer is class B.
The structure of iron-containing hemoglobin. The protein subunits are in red and blue, and the iron-containing heme groups in green. From.
A simplified outline of redox metabolism, showing how NAD and NADH link the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
A simplified outline of the catabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
The structure of cyclic ADP-ribose.
Mechanism of ATP synthase. ATP is shown in red, ADP and phosphate in pink and the rotating stalk subunit in black.
Arthur Harden, co-discoverer of NAD
Plant cells (bounded by purple walls) filled with chloroplasts (green), which are the site of photosynthesis
Simplified version of the steroid synthesis pathway with the intermediates isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP), geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) and squalene shown. Some intermediates are omitted for clarity.
Effect of insulin on glucose uptake and metabolism. Insulin binds to its receptor (1), which in turn starts many protein activation cascades (2). These include: translocation of Glut-4 transporter to the plasma membrane and influx of glucose (3), glycogen synthesis (4), glycolysis (5) and fatty acid synthesis (6).
Evolutionary tree showing the common ancestry of organisms from all three domains of life. Bacteria are colored blue, eukaryotes red, and archaea green. Relative positions of some of the phyla included are shown around the tree.
Metabolic network of the Arabidopsis thaliana citric acid cycle. Enzymes and metabolites are shown as red squares and the interactions between them as black lines.
Aristotle's metabolism as an open flow model
Santorio Santorio in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medicina, first published 1614

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme central to metabolism.

- Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Found in all living cells, NAD is called a dinucleotide because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups.

- Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Nucleotides also play a central role in metabolism at a fundamental, cellular level.

- Nucleotide

They provide chemical energy—in the form of the nucleoside triphosphates, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), guanosine triphosphate (GTP), cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP)—throughout the cell for the many cellular functions that demand energy, including: amino acid, protein and cell membrane synthesis, moving the cell and cell parts (both internally and intercellularly), cell division, etc. In addition, nucleotides participate in cell signaling (cyclic guanosine monophosphate or cGMP and cyclic adenosine monophosphate or cAMP), and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions (e.g. coenzyme A, FAD, FMN, NAD, and NADP+).

- Nucleotide

For example, the multienzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase at the junction of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle requires five organic cofactors and one metal ion: loosely bound thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), covalently bound lipoamide and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), cosubstrates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and coenzyme A (CoA), and a metal ion (Mg2+).

- Cofactor (biochemistry)

Many contain the nucleotide adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as part of their structures, such as ATP, coenzyme A, FAD, and NAD+.

- Cofactor (biochemistry)

The two nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, are polymers of nucleotides.

- Metabolism

These group-transfer intermediates are called coenzymes.

- Metabolism

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a derivative of vitamin B3 (niacin), is an important coenzyme that acts as a hydrogen acceptor.

- Metabolism

Therefore, these cofactors are continuously recycled as part of metabolism.

- Cofactor (biochemistry)
The succinate dehydrogenase complex showing several cofactors, including flavin, iron–sulfur centers, and heme.

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