The succinate dehydrogenase complex showing several cofactors, including flavin, iron–sulfur centers, and heme.
A simple [Fe2S2] cluster containing two iron atoms and two sulfur atoms, coordinated by four protein cysteine residues.
The redox reactions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.

Coenzymes are mostly derived from vitamins and other organic essential nutrients in small amounts.

- Cofactor (biochemistry)

Vitamins are organic compounds essential to the body. They usually act as coenzymes or cofactors for various proteins in the body.

- Nutrient
The succinate dehydrogenase complex showing several cofactors, including flavin, iron–sulfur centers, and heme.

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A bottle of B-complex vitamin pills

Vitamin

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A bottle of B-complex vitamin pills
Calcium combined with vitamin D (as calciferol) supplement tablets with fillers.
Jack Drummond's single-paragraph article in 1920 which provided structure and nomenclature used today for vitamins

A vitamin is an organic molecule (or a set of molecules closely related chemically, i.e. vitamers) that is an essential micronutrient that an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism.

The B complex vitamins function as enzyme cofactors (coenzymes) or the precursors for them.

Vitamin C

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Water-soluble vitamin found in citrus and other fruits and vegetables, and also sold as a dietary supplement.

Water-soluble vitamin found in citrus and other fruits and vegetables, and also sold as a dietary supplement.

Vitamin C supplements at a drug store.
The Nobel prizewinner Linus Pauling advocated taking vitamin C for the common cold in a 1970 book.
Vitamin C biosynthesis in plants
Citrus fruits were among the first sources of vitamin C available to ships' surgeons.
James Lind, a British Royal Navy surgeon who, in 1747, identified that a quality in fruit prevented scurvy in one of the first recorded controlled experiments.
Albert Szent-Györgyi wrote that he won a Nobel Prize after he found a way to mass-produce vitamin C for research purposes when he lived in Szeged, which had become the center of the paprika (red pepper) industry.
Albert Szent-Györgyi, pictured here in 1948, was awarded the 1937 Nobel Prize in Medicine "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitaminC and the catalysis of fumaric acid".

Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue, the formation of collagen, and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters.

Vitamin C functions as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions in animals (including humans) that mediate a variety of essential biological functions, including wound healing and collagen synthesis.

Skeletal formula and ball-and-stick model of the cation in thiamine

Thiamine

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Skeletal formula and ball-and-stick model of the cation in thiamine
A 3D representation of the TPP riboswitch with thiamine bound
Diamine used in the manufacture of thiamine
Takaki Kanehiro
Christiaan Eijkman
Gerrit Grijns
Umetaro Suzuki
Casimir Funk
Rudolph Peters

Thiamine, also known as thiamin and vitamin B1, is a vitamin, an essential micronutrient, which cannot be made in the body.

Within the body, the best-characterized form is thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), also called thiamine diphosphate, a coenzyme in the catabolism of sugars and amino acids.

A man with pellagra, which is caused by a chronic lack of vitamin B3 in the diet

Niacin

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A man with pellagra, which is caused by a chronic lack of vitamin B3 in the diet
Niacin, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), and melatonin biosynthesis from tryptophan
Inositol hexanicotinate
Space-filling model of niacin

Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

Niacin and nicotinamide are both converted into the coenzyme NAD.

Folate

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One of the B vitamins.

One of the B vitamins.

Chemical structure of the folate family
Biotransformation of folic acid into folinic acids where R = para-aminobenzoate-glutamate.
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In the United States and many other countries, wheat flour is fortified with folic acid; some countries also fortify maize flour and rice.

As humans cannot make folate, it is required in the diet, making it an essential nutrient.

The exact mechanisms involved in the development of schizophrenia and depression are not entirely clear, but the bioactive folate, methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), a direct target of methyl donors such as S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe), recycles the inactive dihydrobiopterin (BH2) into tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), the necessary cofactor in various steps of monoamine synthesis, including that of dopamine.