A report on Cofactor (biochemistry) and Vitamin

The succinate dehydrogenase complex showing several cofactors, including flavin, iron–sulfur centers, and heme.
A bottle of B-complex vitamin pills
A simple [Fe2S2] cluster containing two iron atoms and two sulfur atoms, coordinated by four protein cysteine residues.
Calcium combined with vitamin D (as calciferol) supplement tablets with fillers.
The redox reactions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.
Jack Drummond's single-paragraph article in 1920 which provided structure and nomenclature used today for vitamins

Coenzymes are mostly derived from vitamins and other organic essential nutrients in small amounts.

- Cofactor (biochemistry)

The B complex vitamins function as enzyme cofactors (coenzymes) or the precursors for them.

- Vitamin
The succinate dehydrogenase complex showing several cofactors, including flavin, iron–sulfur centers, and heme.

7 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Nutrient

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Substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

Substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

Essential nutrients for animals are the energy sources, some of the amino acids that are combined to create proteins, a subset of fatty acids, vitamins and certain minerals.

Vitamins are organic compounds essential to the body. They usually act as coenzymes or cofactors for various proteins in the body.

A man with pellagra, which is caused by a chronic lack of vitamin B3 in the diet

Niacin

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A man with pellagra, which is caused by a chronic lack of vitamin B3 in the diet
Niacin, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), and melatonin biosynthesis from tryptophan
Inositol hexanicotinate
Space-filling model of niacin

Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

Niacin and nicotinamide are both converted into the coenzyme NAD.

Chemical structure

Riboflavin

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Chemical structure
Cultures of Micrococcus luteus growing on pyridine (left) and succinic acid (right). The pyridine culture has turned yellow from the accumulation of riboflavin.

Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and sold as a dietary supplement.

It is essential to the formation of two major coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide.

Vitamin C

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Vitamin C supplements at a drug store.
The Nobel prizewinner Linus Pauling advocated taking vitamin C for the common cold in a 1970 book.
Vitamin C biosynthesis in plants
Citrus fruits were among the first sources of vitamin C available to ships' surgeons.
James Lind, a British Royal Navy surgeon who, in 1747, identified that a quality in fruit prevented scurvy in one of the first recorded controlled experiments.
Albert Szent-Györgyi wrote that he won a Nobel Prize after he found a way to mass-produce vitamin C for research purposes when he lived in Szeged, which had become the center of the paprika (red pepper) industry.
Albert Szent-Györgyi, pictured here in 1948, was awarded the 1937 Nobel Prize in Medicine "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitaminC and the catalysis of fumaric acid".

Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a water-soluble vitamin found in citrus and other fruits and vegetables, and also sold as a dietary supplement.

Vitamin C functions as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions in animals (including humans) that mediate a variety of essential biological functions, including wound healing and collagen synthesis.

Skeletal formula and ball-and-stick model of the cation in thiamine

Thiamine

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Skeletal formula and ball-and-stick model of the cation in thiamine
A 3D representation of the TPP riboswitch with thiamine bound
Diamine used in the manufacture of thiamine
Takaki Kanehiro
Christiaan Eijkman
Gerrit Grijns
Umetaro Suzuki
Casimir Funk
Rudolph Peters

Thiamine, also known as thiamin and vitamin B1, is a vitamin, an essential micronutrient, which cannot be made in the body.

Within the body, the best-characterized form is thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), also called thiamine diphosphate, a coenzyme in the catabolism of sugars and amino acids.

A vitamin B12 solution (hydroxocobalamin) in a multi-dose bottle, with a single dose drawn up into a syringe for injection. Preparations are usually bright red.

Vitamin B12

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A vitamin B12 solution (hydroxocobalamin) in a multi-dose bottle, with a single dose drawn up into a syringe for injection. Preparations are usually bright red.
A blister pack of 500 µg methylcobalamin tablets
Methylcobalamin (shown) is a form of vitamin B12. Physically it resembles the other forms of vitamin B12, occurring as dark red crystals that freely form cherry-colored transparent solutions in water.
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Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin involved in metabolism.

It is required by animals, which use it as a cofactor in DNA synthesis, in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

Simplified view of the cellular metabolism

Metabolism

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Set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms.

Set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms.

Simplified view of the cellular metabolism
Structure of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a central intermediate in energy metabolism
Structure of a triacylglycerol lipid
This is a diagram depicting a large set of human metabolic pathways.
Glucose can exist in both a straight-chain and ring form.
Structure of the coenzyme acetyl-CoA.The transferable acetyl group is bonded to the sulfur atom at the extreme left.
The structure of iron-containing hemoglobin. The protein subunits are in red and blue, and the iron-containing heme groups in green. From.
A simplified outline of the catabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
Mechanism of ATP synthase. ATP is shown in red, ADP and phosphate in pink and the rotating stalk subunit in black.
Plant cells (bounded by purple walls) filled with chloroplasts (green), which are the site of photosynthesis
Simplified version of the steroid synthesis pathway with the intermediates isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP), geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) and squalene shown. Some intermediates are omitted for clarity.
Effect of insulin on glucose uptake and metabolism. Insulin binds to its receptor (1), which in turn starts many protein activation cascades (2). These include: translocation of Glut-4 transporter to the plasma membrane and influx of glucose (3), glycogen synthesis (4), glycolysis (5) and fatty acid synthesis (6).
Evolutionary tree showing the common ancestry of organisms from all three domains of life. Bacteria are colored blue, eukaryotes red, and archaea green. Relative positions of some of the phyla included are shown around the tree.
Metabolic network of the Arabidopsis thaliana citric acid cycle. Enzymes and metabolites are shown as red squares and the interactions between them as black lines.
Aristotle's metabolism as an open flow model
Santorio Santorio in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medicina, first published 1614

These group-transfer intermediates are called coenzymes.

A vitamin is an organic compound needed in small quantities that cannot be made in cells.