A report on Cofactor (biochemistry)

The succinate dehydrogenase complex showing several cofactors, including flavin, iron–sulfur centers, and heme.
A simple [Fe2S2] cluster containing two iron atoms and two sulfur atoms, coordinated by four protein cysteine residues.
The redox reactions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.

Non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's role as a catalyst .

- Cofactor (biochemistry)
The succinate dehydrogenase complex showing several cofactors, including flavin, iron–sulfur centers, and heme.

45 related topics with Alpha

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A vitamin B12 solution (hydroxocobalamin) in a multi-dose bottle, with a single dose drawn up into a syringe for injection. Preparations are usually bright red.

Vitamin B12

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Water-soluble vitamin involved in metabolism.

Water-soluble vitamin involved in metabolism.

A vitamin B12 solution (hydroxocobalamin) in a multi-dose bottle, with a single dose drawn up into a syringe for injection. Preparations are usually bright red.
A blister pack of 500 µg methylcobalamin tablets
Methylcobalamin (shown) is a form of vitamin B12. Physically it resembles the other forms of vitamin B12, occurring as dark red crystals that freely form cherry-colored transparent solutions in water.
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It is required by animals, which use it as a cofactor in DNA synthesis, in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

Molar volume vs. pressure for α iron at room temperature

Iron

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Chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26.

Chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26.

Molar volume vs. pressure for α iron at room temperature
Low-pressure phase diagram of pure iron
Magnetization curves of 9 ferromagnetic materials, showing saturation. 1.Sheet steel, 2.Silicon steel, 3.Cast steel, 4.Tungsten steel, 5.Magnet steel, 6.Cast iron, 7.Nickel, 8.Cobalt, 9.Magnetite
A polished and chemically etched piece of an iron meteorite, believed to be similar in composition to the Earth's metallic core, showing individual crystals of the iron-nickel alloy (Widmanstatten pattern)
Ochre path in Roussillon.
Banded iron formation in McKinley Park, Minnesota.
Pourbaix diagram of iron
Hydrated iron(III) chloride (ferric chloride)
Comparison of colors of solutions of ferrate (left) and permanganate (right)
Blue-green iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate
The two enantiomorphs of the ferrioxalate ion
Crystal structure of iron(II) oxalate dihydrate, showing iron (gray), oxygen (red), carbon (black), and hydrogen (white) atoms.
Blood-red positive thiocyanate test for iron(III)
Iron penta- carbonyl
Prussian blue
Iron harpoon head from Greenland. The iron edge covers a narwhal tusk harpoon using meteorite iron from the Cape York meteorite, one of the largest iron meteorites known.
The symbol for Mars has been used since antiquity to represent iron.
The iron pillar of Delhi is an example of the iron extraction and processing methodologies of early India.
Iron sickle from Ancient Greece.
Coalbrookdale by Night, 1801. Blast furnaces light the iron making town of Coalbrookdale.
"Gold gab ich für Eisen" – "I gave gold for iron". German-American brooch from WWI.
Iron powder
Iron furnace in Columbus, Ohio, 1922
17th century Chinese illustration of workers at a blast furnace, making wrought iron from pig iron
How iron was extracted in the 19th century
This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production.
A pot of molten iron being used to make steel
Iron-carbon phase diagram
Photon mass attenuation coefficient for iron.
Structure of Heme b; in the protein additional ligand(s) would be attached to Fe.
A heme unit of human carboxyhemoglobin, showing the carbonyl ligand at the apical position, trans to the histidine residue

Metalloproteins are a group of proteins with metal ion cofactors.

Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the metabolically active form of vitamin B6

Vitamin B6

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One of the B vitamins, and thus an essential nutrient.

One of the B vitamins, and thus an essential nutrient.

Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the metabolically active form of vitamin B6
Pyridoxine (PN)
Pyridoxamine (PM)
Pyridoxal (PL)
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Its active form, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, serves as a coenzyme in more than 140 enzyme reactions in amino acid, glucose, and lipid metabolism.

Prosthetic group

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Non-amino acid component that is part of the structure of the heteroproteins or conjugated proteins, being tightly linked to the apoprotein.

Non-amino acid component that is part of the structure of the heteroproteins or conjugated proteins, being tightly linked to the apoprotein.

Not to be confused with the cofactor that binds to the enzyme apoenzyme (either a holoprotein or heteroprotein) by non-covalent binding a non-protein (non-amino acid)

A man with pellagra, which is caused by a chronic lack of vitamin B3 in the diet

Niacin

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Organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

Organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

A man with pellagra, which is caused by a chronic lack of vitamin B3 in the diet
Niacin, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), and melatonin biosynthesis from tryptophan
Inositol hexanicotinate
Space-filling model of niacin

Niacin and nicotinamide are both converted into the coenzyme NAD.

Electrolytically refined manganese chips and a 1 cm3 cube

Manganese

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Chemical element with the symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

Chemical element with the symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

Electrolytically refined manganese chips and a 1 cm3 cube
Manganese(II) chloride crystals – the pale pink color of Mn(II) salts is due to a spin-forbidden 3d transition.
Aqueous solution of KMnO4 illustrating the deep purple of Mn(VII) as it occurs in permanganate
Some of the cave paintings in Lascaux, France, use manganese-based pigments.
Credit for first isolating manganese is usually given to Johan Gottlieb Gahn.
Percentage of manganese output in 2006 by countries
Process flow diagram for a manganese refining circuit.
U.S. M1917 combat helmet, a variant of Brodie helmet, made from Hadfield steel manganese alloy.
World-War-II-era 5-cent coin (1942-5 identified by mint mark P, D or S above dome) made from a 56% copper-35% silver-9% manganese alloy
Reactive center of arginase with boronic acid inhibitor – the manganese atoms are shown in yellow.
Molecular model of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT)

The classes of enzymes that have manganese cofactors include oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases and ligases.

3D structure of a hammerhead ribozyme

Ribozyme

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Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes) are RNA molecules that have the ability to catalyze specific biochemical reactions, including RNA splicing in gene expression, similar to the action of protein enzymes.

Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes) are RNA molecules that have the ability to catalyze specific biochemical reactions, including RNA splicing in gene expression, similar to the action of protein enzymes.

3D structure of a hammerhead ribozyme
Schematic showing ribozyme cleavage of RNA
Image showing the diversity of ribozyme structures. From left to right: leadzyme, hammerhead ribozyme, twister ribozyme
A ribosome is a biological machine that utilizes a ribozyme to translate RNA into proteins

For example, the functional part of the ribosome, the biological machine that translates RNA into proteins, is fundamentally a ribozyme, composed of RNA tertiary structural motifs that are often coordinated to metal ions such as Mg2+ as cofactors.

Structure of the polymeric [Ca(H2O)6]2+ center in hydrated calcium chloride, illustrating the high coordination number typical for calcium complexes.

Calcium

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Chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

Chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

Structure of the polymeric [Ca(H2O)6]2+ center in hydrated calcium chloride, illustrating the high coordination number typical for calcium complexes.
One of the 'Ain Ghazal Statues, made from lime plaster
Travertine terraces in Pamukkale, Turkey

As electrolytes, calcium ions play a vital role in the physiological and biochemical processes of organisms and cells: in signal transduction pathways where they act as a second messenger; in neurotransmitter release from neurons; in contraction of all muscle cell types; as cofactors in many enzymes; and in fertilization.

Nitric oxide synthase

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Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine.

Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine.

NOSs are unusual in that they require five cofactors.

Folate

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One of the B vitamins.

One of the B vitamins.

Chemical structure of the folate family
Biotransformation of folic acid into folinic acids where R = para-aminobenzoate-glutamate.
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In the United States and many other countries, wheat flour is fortified with folic acid; some countries also fortify maize flour and rice.

The exact mechanisms involved in the development of schizophrenia and depression are not entirely clear, but the bioactive folate, methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), a direct target of methyl donors such as S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe), recycles the inactive dihydrobiopterin (BH2) into tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), the necessary cofactor in various steps of monoamine synthesis, including that of dopamine.