A report on Cofactor (biochemistry)

The succinate dehydrogenase complex showing several cofactors, including flavin, iron–sulfur centers, and heme.
A simple [Fe2S2] cluster containing two iron atoms and two sulfur atoms, coordinated by four protein cysteine residues.
The redox reactions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.

Non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's role as a catalyst .

- Cofactor (biochemistry)
The succinate dehydrogenase complex showing several cofactors, including flavin, iron–sulfur centers, and heme.

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Overall

A reaction catalyzed by a reductase enzyme

Dehydrogenase

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A reaction catalyzed by a reductase enzyme
Alcohol dehydrogenase oxidizes ethanol, with the help of the electron carrier NAD+, yielding acetaldehyde
Reaction catalyzed by succinate dehydrogenase, note the double bond formed between the two central carbons when two hydrogens are removed
Reaction catalyzed by an oxidase, note the reduction of oxygen as the electron acceptor
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate
Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide
The mechanism of an aldehyde dehydrogenase, note the use of NAD+ as an electron acceptor.

A dehydrogenase is an enzyme belonging to the group of oxidoreductases that oxidizes a substrate by reducing an electron acceptor, usually NAD+/NADP+ or a flavin coenzyme such as FAD or FMN.

The 18-electron cycle of porphin, the parent structure of porphyrin, highlighted. (Several other choices of atoms, through the pyrrole nitrogens, for example, also give 18-electron cycles.)

Porphyrin

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Porphyrins are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (=CH−).

Porphyrins are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (=CH−).

The 18-electron cycle of porphin, the parent structure of porphyrin, highlighted. (Several other choices of atoms, through the pyrrole nitrogens, for example, also give 18-electron cycles.)
Porphycene, first porphyrin isomer, synthesised from bipyrrole dialdehyde through McMurry coupling reaction
Various reported Isomers of porphyrin
Heme B biosynthesis pathway and its modulators. Major enzyme deficiences are also shown.
Brilliant crystals of meso-tetratolylporphyrin, prepared from 4-methylbenzaldehyde and pyrrole in refluxing propionic acid
On a gold surface porphyrin derivative molecules (a) form chains and clusters (b). Each cluster in (c,d) contains 4 or 5 molecules in the core and 8 or 10 molecules in the outer shells (STM images).
An example of porphyrins involved in host–guest chemistry. Here, a four-porphyrin–zinc complex hosts a porphyrin guest.
Porphin is the simplest porphyrin, a rare compound of theoretical interest.
Derivatives of protoporphyrin IX are common in nature, the precursor to hemes.
Octaethylporphyrin (H{{sub|2}}OEP) is a synthetic analogue of protoporphyrin IX. Unlike the natural porphyrin ligands, OEP{{sup|2−}} is highly symmetrical.
Lewis structure for meso-tetraphenylporphyrin
Simplified view of heme, a complex of a protoporphyrin IX.
UV–vis readout for meso-tetraphenylporphyrin
Light-activated porphyrin. Monatomic oxygen. Cellular aging

One of the best-known families of porphyrin complexes is heme, the pigment in red blood cells, a cofactor of the protein hemoglobin.

Archaea

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Archaea (singular archaeon ) constitute a domain of single-celled organisms.

Archaea (singular archaeon ) constitute a domain of single-celled organisms.

Archaea were found in volcanic hot springs. Pictured here is Grand Prismatic Spring of Yellowstone National Park.
The ARMAN are a group of archaea recently discovered in acid mine drainage.
Membrane structures. Top, an archaeal phospholipid: 1, isoprene chains; 2, ether linkages; 3, L-glycerol moiety; 4, phosphate group. Middle, a bacterial or eukaryotic phospholipid: 5, fatty acid chains; 6, ester linkages; 7, D-glycerol moiety; 8, phosphate group. Bottom: 9, lipid bilayer of bacteria and eukaryotes; 10, lipid monolayer of some archaea.
Bacteriorhodopsin from Halobacterium salinarum. The retinol cofactor and residues involved in proton transfer are shown as ball-and-stick models.
Sulfolobus infected with the DNA virus STSV1. Bar is 1 micrometer.
Archaea that grow in the hot water of the Morning Glory Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park produce a bright colour
Methanogenic archaea form a symbiosis with termites.

Methanogenesis involves a range of coenzymes that are unique to these archaea, such as coenzyme M and methanofuran.

structure of a hyperthermophilic tungstopterin enzyme, aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase

Aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase

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Aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

Aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

structure of a hyperthermophilic tungstopterin enzyme, aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase
Molybdopterin cofactor, shown in the dithiol protonation state.
AOR mechanism at the active site.

The active site of the AOR family feature an oxo-tungsten center bound to a pair of molybdopterin cofactors (which does not contain molybdenum) and an 4Fe-4S cluster.

Transketolase

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Enzyme that is encoded by the TKT gene.

Enzyme that is encoded by the TKT gene.

Mechanism of fructose-6-phosphate to xylulose-5-phosphate in transketolase active site
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The cofactor necessary for this step to occur is thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP).

Mechanism of pyruvate decarboxylation.

Pyruvate decarboxylase

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Enzyme that catalyses the decarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acetaldehyde.

Enzyme that catalyses the decarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acetaldehyde.

Mechanism of pyruvate decarboxylation.

Pyruvate decarboxylase depends on cofactors thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and magnesium.

Yeast

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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

Yeast ring used by Swedish farmhouse brewers in the 19th century to preserve yeast between brewing sessions.
Bubbles of carbon dioxide forming during beer-brewing
Yeast in a bottle during sparkling wine production at Schramsberg Vineyards, Napa
A block of compressed fresh yeast
Active dried yeast, a granulated form in which yeast is commercially sold
Diagram showing a yeast cell
Gram stain of Candida albicans from a vaginal swab. The small oval chlamydospores are 2–4 µm in diameter.
A photomicrograph of Candida albicans showing hyphal outgrowth and other morphological characteristics

Nutritional yeast in particular is naturally low in fat and sodium and a source of protein and vitamins as well as other minerals and cofactors required for growth.

Methanogen

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Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in hypoxic conditions.

Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in hypoxic conditions.

Different methanogenic reactions are catalyzed by unique sets of enzymes and coenzymes.

Biotin

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One of the B vitamins.

One of the B vitamins.

Biotin is a coenzyme for five carboxylase enzymes, which are involved in the digestion of carbohydrates, synthesis of fatty acids, and gluconeogenesis.

A 1990 phylogenetic tree linking all major groups of living organisms to the LUCA (the black trunk at the bottom), based on ribosomal RNA sequence data.

Last universal common ancestor

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Most recent population of organisms from which all organisms now living on Earth share common descent—the most recent common ancestor of all current life on Earth.

Most recent population of organisms from which all organisms now living on Earth share common descent—the most recent common ancestor of all current life on Earth.

A 1990 phylogenetic tree linking all major groups of living organisms to the LUCA (the black trunk at the bottom), based on ribosomal RNA sequence data.
LUCA systems and environment
2005 tree of life showing horizontal gene transfers between branches, giving rise to an interconnected network rather than a tree
The LUCA used the Wood–Ljungdahl or reductive acetyl–CoA pathway to fix carbon.
A tree of life, like this one from Charles Darwin's notebooks c. July 1837, implies a single common ancestor at its root (labelled "1"), as Darwin noted.

The cofactors also reveal "dependence upon transition metals, flavins, S-adenosyl methionine, coenzyme A, ferredoxin, molybdopterin, corrins and selenium. Its genetic code required nucleoside modifications and S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylations."