Coffee

coffee beansblack coffeegourmet coffeeWhole Bean Coffeecafféeffects of coffeehealth effects of coffeeqahwaartisanal coffeebean plant
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain Coffea species.wikipedia
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Coffee bean

coffee beanscoffeegreen coffee
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain Coffea species.
A coffee bean is a seed of the coffee plant and the source for coffee.

Drink

beveragebeveragesdrinks
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain Coffea species.
Common types of drinks include plain drinking water, milk, coffee, tea, hot chocolate and soft drinks.

List of countries by coffee production

largest coffee producers in the worldmajor coffee producing countriesmore than 70 countries
Coffee plants are now cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, Indian subcontinent, and Africa. As of 2016, Brazil was the leading grower of coffee beans, producing one-third of the world total.
The following table lists the total coffee production of coffee exporting countries.

Coffea

coffeecoffee plantcoffee plants
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain Coffea species.
The seeds of some species, called coffee beans, are used to make various coffee beverages and products.

Robusta coffee

Robusta RobustaC. robusta
The two most commonly grown are C. arabica and C. robusta.
Robusta coffee is coffee made from the Coffea canephora plant, a sturdy species of coffee bean with low acidity and high bitterness.

Coffee roasting

roastedroastercoffee roastery
Dried coffee seeds (referred to as "beans") are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor.
Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products.

Iced coffee

icedBlended coffeefrozen coffee beverage
It is usually served hot, although iced coffee is a popular alternative.
Iced coffee is a type of coffee beverage served chilled, brewed variously with the fundamental division being cold brew – brewing the coffee cold, yielding a different flavor, and not requiring cooling – or brewing normally (hot) and then cooling, generally by simply pouring over ice or into ice cold milk.

French press

cafetièrecafetierecafetières
It is one of the most popular drinks in the world, and it can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways (e.g., espresso, French press, café latte).
A French press, also known as a cafetière, cafetière à piston, Cafeteria, press pot, coffee press, or coffee plunger, is a coffee brewing device invented by Paolini Ugo and patented by Italian designer Attilio Calimani and Giulio Moneta in 1929.

Caffeine

caffeinatedcaffeine pillscaffeine withdrawal
Coffee is darkly colored, bitter, slightly acidic and has a stimulating effect in humans, primarily due to its caffeine content.
Caffeine-containing drinks, such as coffee, tea, and cola, are very popular; as of 2014, 85% of American adults consumed some form of caffeine daily, consuming 164 mg on average.

List of countries by coffee exports

export for numerous countries
Coffee is a major export commodity, being the top legal agricultural export for numerous countries.
The following is a list of countries by coffee exports.

Fair trade coffee

fair tradecertificationsfair
Consequently, the markets for fair trade and organic coffee are expanding, notably in the USA.
Fair Trade coffee is coffee that is certified as having been produced to fair trade standards.

Organic coffee

Organic
Consequently, the markets for fair trade and organic coffee are expanding, notably in the USA.
Organic coffee is coffee produced without the aid of artificial chemical substances, such as certain additives or some pesticides and herbicides.

Coffea arabica

arabicaArabica coffeecoffee
The two most commonly grown are C. arabica and C. robusta.
The seeds are contained in a drupe (commonly called a "cherry") 10–15 mm in diameter, maturing bright red to purple and typically contains two seeds, the actual coffee beans.

Indonesia

🇮🇩IndonesianRepublic of Indonesia
Coffee then spread to Italy, and to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas.
Agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices and rubber.

Coffee production in Brazil

Brazilcoffee productionproducer of coffee
Meanwhile, coffee had been introduced to Brazil in 1727, although its cultivation did not gather momentum until independence in 1822.
Coffee production in Brazil is responsible for about a third of all coffee, making Brazil by far the world's largest producer, a position the country has held for the last 150 years.

Rubiaceae

coffee familycoffeerubiaceous
All coffee plants are classified in the large family Rubiaceae.
Economically important species include Coffea, the source of coffee, Cinchona, the source of the antimalarial alkaloid quinine, some dye plants (e.g. Rubia), and ornamental cultivars (e.g. Gardenia, Ixora, Pentas).

Comoros

🇰🇲ComorianUnion of the Comoros
The genus Coffea is native to tropical Africa (specifically having its origin in Ethiopia and Sudan) and Madagascar, the Comoros, Mauritius, and Réunion in the Indian Ocean.
The other islands were soon transformed as well, and the major crops of ylang-ylang, vanilla, coffee, cocoa beans, and sisal were introduced.

Kaldi

The story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee when he noticed how excited his goats became after eating the beans from a coffee plant, did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal.
Kaldi or Khalid was a legendary Ethiopian Sufi goatherd in Ethiopia who discovered the coffee plant around 850 AD, according to popular legend, after which it entered the Islamic world then the rest of the world.

Cash crop

cash cropscommodity cropcash-crop
Coffee has become a vital cash crop for many developing countries.
Coffee is an example of a product that has been susceptible to significant commodity futures price variations.

Stimulant

psychostimulantstimulantspsychostimulants
Coffee is darkly colored, bitter, slightly acidic and has a stimulating effect in humans, primarily due to its caffeine content.
Caffeine is a stimulant compound belonging to the xanthine class of chemicals naturally found in coffee, tea, and (to a lesser degree) cocoa or chocolate.

Leonhard Rauwolf

Leonhard (Leonhart) Rauwolf(f)Rauwolf
In 1583, Leonhard Rauwolf, a German physician, gave this description of coffee after returning from a ten-year trip to the Near East:
Rauwolff was among the first Europeans to describe the drinking of coffee (which was unknown in Europe at the time): "A very good drink they call Chaube that is almost as black as ink and very good in illness, especially of the stomach. This they drink in the morning early in the open places before everybody, without any fear or regard, out of China cups, as hot as they can, sipping it a little at a time."

Coffee production in Indonesia

JavaIndonesiacoffee
The first exports of Indonesian coffee from Java to the Netherlands occurred in 1711. Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown, such as Colombian, Java and Kona.
Indonesia was the fourth-largest producer of coffee in the world in 2014.

Kona coffee

Kona
Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown, such as Colombian, Java and Kona.
Kona coffee is the market name for coffee (Coffea arabica) cultivated on the slopes of Hualalai and Mauna Loa in the North and South Kona Districts of the Big Island of Hawaii.

Coffee borer beetle

coffee berry borercoffee berry borer beetlesHypothenemus hampei
Nematodes attack the roots, coffee borer beetles burrow into stems and woody material, and the foliage is attacked by over 100 species of larvae (caterpillars) of butterflies and moths.
It is among the most harmful pests to coffee crops across the world where coffee is cultivated.

Brazil

🇧🇷BRABrazilian
As of 2016, Brazil was the leading grower of coffee beans, producing one-third of the world total.
Major export products include aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol, textiles, footwear, iron ore, steel, coffee, orange juice, soybeans and corned beef.