Cognition

cognitivecognitive functioncognitive processescognitive processcognitive abilitiescognitive processingcognitive abilitycognitive functioningcognitivelycognitive functions
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".wikipedia
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Attention

concentrationfocusvisual attention
It encompasses processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language. It encompasses processes such as memory, association, concept formation, pattern recognition, language, attention, perception, action, problem solving and mental imagery.
Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.

Decision-making

decision makingdecisionsdecision
It encompasses processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language.
In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.

Reason

reasoningratiocinationrational
It encompasses processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language.
Reasoning is associated with thinking, cognition, and intellect.

Psychiatry

psychiatricpsychiatristpsychiatrists
The processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, anesthesia, neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, education, philosophy, anthropology, biology, systemics, logic, and computer science.
These include various maladaptations related to mood, behaviour, cognition, and perceptions.

Language

languageslinguistichuman language
It encompasses processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language. It encompasses processes such as memory, association, concept formation, pattern recognition, language, attention, perception, action, problem solving and mental imagery.
Depending on philosophical perspectives regarding the definition of language and meaning, when used as a general concept, "language" may refer to the cognitive ability to learn and use systems of complex communication, or to describe the set of rules that makes up these systems, or the set of utterances that can be produced from those rules.

Knowledge

knowhuman knowledgesituated knowledge
It encompasses processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language.
Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception, communication, and reasoning; while knowledge is also said to be related to the capacity of acknowledgement in human beings.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
The processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, anesthesia, neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, education, philosophy, anthropology, biology, systemics, logic, and computer science.
Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, cognition, attention, emotion (affect), intelligence, phenomenology, motivation (conation), brain functioning, and personality.

Cognitive science

cognitive scientistcognitive sciencescognitive
These and other different approaches to the analysis of cognition are synthesised in the developing field of cognitive science, a progressively autonomous academic discipline.
It examines the nature, the tasks, and the functions of cognition (in a broad sense).

Problem solving

problem-solvingproblemsolve problems
It encompasses processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language. It encompasses processes such as memory, association, concept formation, pattern recognition, language, attention, perception, action, problem solving and mental imagery.
Problem solving has been defined as a higher-order cognitive process and intellectual function that requires the modulation and control of more routine or fundamental skills.

Social cognition

social cognitivesocial schemasschemas
In psychology, the term "cognition" is usually used within an information processing view of an individual's psychological functions (see cognitivism), and it is the same in cognitive engineering; in a branch of social psychology called social cognition, the term is used to explain attitudes, attribution, and group dynamics.
Social cognition is "a sub-topic of social psychology that focuses on how people process, store, and apply information about other people and social situations. It focuses on the role that cognitive processes play in social interactions."

Systemics

systemicsystemismsystemic thinking
The processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, anesthesia, neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, education, philosophy, anthropology, biology, systemics, logic, and computer science.
It is an attempt at developing logical, mathematical, engineering and philosophical paradigms and frameworks in which physical, technological, biological, social, cognitive and metaphysical systems can be studied and modeled.

Cognitivism (psychology)

cognitivismcognitivistcognitivists
In psychology, the term "cognition" is usually used within an information processing view of an individual's psychological functions (see cognitivism), and it is the same in cognitive engineering; in a branch of social psychology called social cognition, the term is used to explain attitudes, attribution, and group dynamics.
The movement was a response to behaviorism, which cognitivists said neglected to explain cognition.

Metacognition

metacognitivemetacognitive reasoningmeta-cognitive reasoning
Traditionally, emotion was not thought of as a cognitive process, but now much research is being undertaken to examine the cognitive psychology of emotion; research is also focused on one's awareness of one's own strategies and methods of cognition, which is called metacognition.
Metacognition is "cognition about cognition", "thinking about thinking", "knowing about knowing", becoming "aware of one's awareness" and higher-order thinking skills.

Emotion

emotionsemotionalemotional state
Traditionally, emotion was not thought of as a cognitive process, but now much research is being undertaken to examine the cognitive psychology of emotion; research is also focused on one's awareness of one's own strategies and methods of cognition, which is called metacognition.
In some theories, cognition is an important aspect of emotion.

Social psychology

social psychologistsocialsocial psychological
In psychology, the term "cognition" is usually used within an information processing view of an individual's psychological functions (see cognitivism), and it is the same in cognitive engineering; in a branch of social psychology called social cognition, the term is used to explain attitudes, attribution, and group dynamics.
They were instrumental in developing the field as something separate from the behavioral and psychoanalytic schools that were dominant during that time, and social psychology has always maintained the legacy of their interests in perception and cognition.

Association of ideas

associations of ideasassociationistsassociationism
It encompasses processes such as memory, association, concept formation, pattern recognition, language, attention, perception, action, problem solving and mental imagery.
The core ideas of associationist thinking recur in some recent thought on cognition, especially consciousness.

Neurocognitive

neurocognitive deficitneurocognitionneuro-cognitive disorder
While few people would deny that cognitive processes are a function of the brain, a cognitive theory will not necessarily make reference to the brain or to biological processes (compare neurocognitive).
Neurocognitive functions are cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or cortical networks in the brain substrate layers of neurological matrix at the cellular molecular level.

Cognitive neuroscience

cognitive neuroscientistcognitiveneuroscience
Relatively recent fields of study such as neuropsychology aim to bridge this gap, using cognitive paradigms to understand how the brain implements the information-processing functions (see also cognitive neuroscience), or to understand how pure information-processing systems (e.g., computers) can simulate human cognition (see also artificial intelligence).
Cognitive neuroscience is the scientific field that is concerned with the study of the biological processes and aspects that underlie cognition, with a specific focus on the neural connections in the brain which are involved in mental processes.

Animal cognition

intelligenceanimal learninganimal intelligence
The links of cognition to evolutionary demands are studied through the investigation of animal cognition.
Researchers have examined animal cognition in mammals (especially primates, cetaceans, elephants, dogs, cats, pigs, horses, cattle, raccoons and rodents), birds (including parrots, fowl, corvids and pigeons), reptiles (lizards and snakes), fish and invertebrates (including cephalopods, spiders and insects).

Neuropsychology

neuropsychologicalneuropsychologistneuropsychologists
Relatively recent fields of study such as neuropsychology aim to bridge this gap, using cognitive paradigms to understand how the brain implements the information-processing functions (see also cognitive neuroscience), or to understand how pure information-processing systems (e.g., computers) can simulate human cognition (see also artificial intelligence).
It is both an experimental and clinical field of psychology that aims to understand how behavior and cognition are influenced by brain functioning and is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and cognitive effects of neurological disorders.

Cognitive neuropsychology

researchScientific investigationneuropsychology of memory
The branch of psychology that studies brain injury to infer normal cognitive function is called cognitive neuropsychology.
Cognitive neuropsychology places a particular emphasis on studying the cognitive effects of brain injury or neurological illness with a view to inferring models of normal cognitive functioning.

Information processing

processingprocessprocessing of information
In psychology, the term "cognition" is usually used within an information processing view of an individual's psychological functions (see cognitivism), and it is the same in cognitive engineering; in a branch of social psychology called social cognition, the term is used to explain attitudes, attribution, and group dynamics.
The approach treats cognition as essentially computational in nature, with mind being the software and the brain being the hardware.

Wilhelm Wundt

WundtWundt, W.Professor Wundt
Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920) emphasized the notion of what he called introspection: examining the inner feelings of an individual.
Psychology is interested in the current process, i.e. the mental changes and functional relationships between perception, cognition, emotion, and volition/ motivation.

Cognitive biology

Cognitive biologist
Cognitive biology
Cognitive biology is an emerging science that regards natural cognition as a biological function.

Anthropology

anthropologistanthropologicalanthropologists
The processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, anesthesia, neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, education, philosophy, anthropology, biology, systemics, logic, and computer science.
This subfield tends to focus on ways in which humans' development and enculturation within a particular cultural group—with its own history, language, practices, and conceptual categories—shape processes of human cognition, emotion, perception, motivation, and mental health.