Cognition

cognitivecognitive functioncognitive processcognitive processesmental processcognitive abilitiesmental functioncognitive functionscognitive processingcognitive ability
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".wikipedia
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Attention

concentrationfocusinattention
It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language. It encompasses processes such as memory, association, concept formation, pattern recognition, language, attention, perception, action, problem solving and mental imagery.
Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.

Knowledge

knowhuman knowledgesituated knowledge
It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language.
Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception, communication, and reasoning; while knowledge is also said to be related to the capacity of acknowledgement in human beings.

Reason

reasoningratiocinationhuman reason
It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language.
Reasoning is associated with thinking, cognition, and intellect.

Decision-making

decision makingdecisionsdecision
It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language.
In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.

Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language. It encompasses processes such as memory, association, concept formation, pattern recognition, language, attention, perception, action, problem solving and mental imagery.
Depending on philosophical perspectives regarding the definition of language and meaning, when used as a general concept, "language" may refer to the cognitive ability to learn and use systems of complex communication, or to describe the set of rules that makes up these systems, or the set of utterances that can be produced from those rules.

Psychiatry

psychiatricpsychiatristpsychiatrists
Cognitive processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, anesthesia, neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, education, philosophy, anthropology, biology, systemics, logic, and computer science.
These include various maladaptations related to mood, behaviour, cognition, and perceptions.

Problem solving

problem-solvingproblemsolution
It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language. It encompasses processes such as memory, association, concept formation, pattern recognition, language, attention, perception, action, problem solving and mental imagery.
Problem solving has been defined as a higher-order cognitive process and intellectual function that requires the modulation and control of more routine or fundamental skills.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Cognitive processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, anesthesia, neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, education, philosophy, anthropology, biology, systemics, logic, and computer science.
Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, cognition, attention, emotion, intelligence, subjective experiences, motivation, brain functioning, and personality.

Cognitive science

cognitive scientistcognitive sciencescognitive
These and other different approaches to the analysis of cognition are synthesised in the developing field of cognitive science, a progressively autonomous academic discipline.
It examines the nature, the tasks, and the functions of cognition (in a broad sense).

Neuroscience

neurobiologyneuroscientistneurosciences
Cognitive processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, anesthesia, neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, education, philosophy, anthropology, biology, systemics, logic, and computer science.
At the time, Broca's findings were seen as a confirmation of Franz Joseph Gall's theory that language was localized and that certain psychological functions were localized in specific areas of the cerebral cortex.

Systemics

systemicsystemic thinkingsystemism
Cognitive processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, anesthesia, neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, education, philosophy, anthropology, biology, systemics, logic, and computer science.
It is an attempt at developing logical, mathematical, engineering and philosophical paradigms and frameworks in which physical, technological, biological, social, cognitive and metaphysical systems can be studied and modeled.

Cognitivism (psychology)

cognitivismcognitivistcognitive
In psychology, the term "cognition" is usually used within an information processing view of an individual's psychological functions (see cognitivism), and it is the same in cognitive engineering; in a branch of social psychology called social cognition, the term is used to explain attitudes, attribution, and group dynamics.
The process of assimilating and expanding our intellectual horizon is termed as cognitive development.

Social cognition

social cognitiveand social cognitionschemas
In psychology, the term "cognition" is usually used within an information processing view of an individual's psychological functions (see cognitivism), and it is the same in cognitive engineering; in a branch of social psychology called social cognition, the term is used to explain attitudes, attribution, and group dynamics.
It focuses on the role that cognitive processes play in social interactions.

Social psychology

social psychologistsocialsocial psychological
In psychology, the term "cognition" is usually used within an information processing view of an individual's psychological functions (see cognitivism), and it is the same in cognitive engineering; in a branch of social psychology called social cognition, the term is used to explain attitudes, attribution, and group dynamics.
They were instrumental in developing the field as something separate from the behavioral and psychoanalytic schools that were dominant during that time, and social psychology has always maintained the legacy of their interests in perception and cognition.

Anthropology

anthropologistanthropologicalanthropologists
Cognitive processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, anesthesia, neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, education, philosophy, anthropology, biology, systemics, logic, and computer science.
This subfield tends to focus on ways in which humans' development and enculturation within a particular cultural group – with its own history, language, practices, and conceptual categories – shape processes of human cognition, emotion, perception, motivation, and mental health.

Association of ideas

Mental associationassociations of ideasassociationism
It encompasses processes such as memory, association, concept formation, pattern recognition, language, attention, perception, action, problem solving and mental imagery.
The core ideas of associationist thinking recur in some recent thought on cognition, especially consciousness.

Cognitive psychology

cognitive psychologistcognitivecognitive psychologists
Traditionally, emotion was not thought of as a cognitive process, but now much research is being undertaken to examine the cognitive psychology of emotion; research is also focused on one's awareness of one's own strategies and methods of cognition, which is called metacognition.
Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".

Memory

memorieshuman memorymemory formation
It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language. It encompasses processes such as memory, association, concept formation, pattern recognition, language, attention, perception, action, problem solving and mental imagery.
A UCLA research study published in the June 2008 issue of the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry found that people can improve cognitive function and brain efficiency through simple lifestyle changes such as incorporating memory exercises, healthy eating, physical fitness and stress reduction into their daily lives.

Information processing

processingprocessprocessing of information
In psychology, the term "cognition" is usually used within an information processing view of an individual's psychological functions (see cognitivism), and it is the same in cognitive engineering; in a branch of social psychology called social cognition, the term is used to explain attitudes, attribution, and group dynamics.
The approach treats cognition as essentially computational in nature, with mind being the software and the brain being the hardware.

Metacognition

metacognitivemeta-cognitionmeta-cognitive
Traditionally, emotion was not thought of as a cognitive process, but now much research is being undertaken to examine the cognitive psychology of emotion; research is also focused on one's awareness of one's own strategies and methods of cognition, which is called metacognition.
Metacognition is "cognition about cognition", "thinking about thinking", "knowing about knowing", becoming "aware of one's awareness" and higher-order thinking skills.

Wilhelm Wundt

WundtWilhelm Max WundtWilhelm Maximilian Wundt
Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920) emphasized the notion of what he called introspection: examining the inner feelings of an individual.
Psychology is interested in the current process, i.e. the mental changes and functional relationships between perception, cognition, emotion, and volition/ motivation.

Emotion

emotionsemotionalemotional state
Traditionally, emotion was not thought of as a cognitive process, but now much research is being undertaken to examine the cognitive psychology of emotion; research is also focused on one's awareness of one's own strategies and methods of cognition, which is called metacognition.
In some theories, cognition is an important aspect of emotion.

Anesthesia

anaesthesiaanestheticanesthetized
Cognitive processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, anesthesia, neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, education, philosophy, anthropology, biology, systemics, logic, and computer science.
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (also known as POCD and post-anesthetic confusion) is a disturbance in cognition after surgery.

Neuropsychology

neuropsychologicalneuropsychologistneuropsychologists
Relatively recent fields of study such as neuropsychology aim to bridge this gap, using cognitive paradigms to understand how the brain implements the information-processing functions (see also cognitive neuroscience), or to understand how pure information-processing systems (e.g., computers) can simulate human cognition (see also artificial intelligence).
It is both an experimental and clinical field of psychology that aims to understand how behavior and cognition are influenced by brain functioning and is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and cognitive effects of neurological disorders.

Neurocognitive

neurocognitive deficitneurocognitionfunctioning of mind
While few people would deny that cognitive processes are a function of the brain, a cognitive theory will not necessarily make reference to the brain or to biological processes (compare neurocognitive).
Neurocognitive functions are cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or cortical networks in the brain substrate layers of neurological matrix at the cellular molecular level.