Cognitive distortion

cognitive distortionsdistortionpsychopathic fictiondistorted thinkingimpairs their cognition[c]ognitive distortioncognitively distorteddistortdistorteddistorted self-reflection
A cognitive distortion is an exaggerated or irrational thought pattern involved in the onset and perpetuation of psychopathological states, especially those more influenced by psychosocial factors, such as depression and anxiety.wikipedia
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Cognitive behavioral therapy

cognitive behavioural therapycognitive-behavioral therapyCBT
Challenging and changing cognitive distortions is a key element of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).
CBT focuses on challenging and changing unhelpful cognitive distortions (e.g. thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes) and behaviors, improving emotional regulation, and the development of personal coping strategies that target solving current problems.

Cognitive therapy

cognitivecognitive psychotherapycognitive behavioural therapy
In 1972, psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and cognitive therapy scholar Aaron T. Beck published Depression: Causes and Treatment. He was dissatisfied with the conventional Freudian treatment of depression, because there was no empirical evidence for the success of Freudian psychoanalysis.
Beck initially focused on depression and developed a list of "errors" (cognitive distortion) in thinking that he proposed could maintain depression, including arbitrary inference, selective abstraction, over-generalization, and magnification (of negatives) and minimization (of positives).

The Feeling Good Handbook

Burns, in The Feeling Good Handbook (1989), described personal and professional anecdotes related to cognitive distortions and their elimination.
The book includes an explanation of the principles of cognitive behavioral therapy, and details ways to improve a person's mood and life by identifying and eliminating common cognitive distortions, as well as methods to improve communication skills.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
A cognitive distortion is an exaggerated or irrational thought pattern involved in the onset and perpetuation of psychopathological states, especially those more influenced by psychosocial factors, such as depression and anxiety.
Cognitive distortions such as overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, mind reading, emotional reasoning, binocular trick, and mental filter can result in anxiety.

Make a mountain out of a molehill

making a mountain out of a molehillMagnificationa mountain out of a mustard seed
Giving proportionally greater weight to a perceived failure, weakness or threat, or lesser weight to a perceived success, strength or opportunity, so that the weight differs from that assigned by others, such as "making a mountain out of a molehill".
In cognitive psychology, this form of distortion is called magnification or overreacting.

Cognitive restructuring

cognitive interventionscognitive-restructuring
Cognitive restructuring (CR) is a popular form of therapy used to identify and reject maladaptive cognitive distortions and is typically used with individuals diagnosed with depression.
Cognitive restructuring (CR) is a psychotherapeutic process of learning to identify and dispute irrational or maladaptive thoughts known as cognitive distortions, such as all-or-nothing thinking (splitting), magical thinking, over-generalization, magnification, and emotional reasoning, which are commonly associated with many mental health disorders.

Rational emotive behavior therapy

Rational Emotive TherapyRational Emotive Behavioral Therapyrational-emotive therapy
A related cognitive distortion, also present in Ellis' REBT, is a tendency to "awfulize"; to say a future scenario will be awful, rather than to realistically appraise the various negative and positive characteristics of that scenario.
These dysfunctional patterns are examples of cognitive distortions.

Minimisation (psychology)

minimizationminimisationminimize
As such, narcissists use exaggeration and minimization to defend against psychic pain.

Exaggeration

exaggeratedexaggerateexaggerations
As such, narcissists use exaggeration and minimization to defend against psychic pain. * Catastrophizing – Giving greater weight to the worst possible outcome, however unlikely, or experiencing a situation as unbearable or impossible when it is just uncomfortable
The alarmist person is subject to the cognitive distortion of catastrophizing – of always expecting the worst of possible futures.

Psychopathology

psychopathologicalpsychopathologiespsychopathologist
A cognitive distortion is an exaggerated or irrational thought pattern involved in the onset and perpetuation of psychopathological states, especially those more influenced by psychosocial factors, such as depression and anxiety.

Depression (mood)

depressiondepressedmelancholy
In 1972, psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and cognitive therapy scholar Aaron T. Beck published Depression: Causes and Treatment. He was dissatisfied with the conventional Freudian treatment of depression, because there was no empirical evidence for the success of Freudian psychoanalysis. A cognitive distortion is an exaggerated or irrational thought pattern involved in the onset and perpetuation of psychopathological states, especially those more influenced by psychosocial factors, such as depression and anxiety.

Aaron T. Beck

Aaron Beckautomatic thoughts
Psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck laid the groundwork for the study of these distortions, and his student David D. Burns continued research on the topic.

David D. Burns

Burns, D. D.
Psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck laid the groundwork for the study of these distortions, and his student David D. Burns continued research on the topic.

Psychoanalysis

psychoanalystpsychoanalyticpsychoanalytical
In 1972, psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and cognitive therapy scholar Aaron T. Beck published Depression: Causes and Treatment. He was dissatisfied with the conventional Freudian treatment of depression, because there was no empirical evidence for the success of Freudian psychoanalysis.

Formal fallacy

non sequiturlogical fallacylogical fallacies
The cognitive distortions listed below are categories of automatic thinking, and are to be distinguished from logical fallacies.

Self

self-interestselvesselfhood
This distortion is characterized by actively trying to prove one's actions or thoughts to be correct, and sometimes prioritizing self-interest over the feelings of another person.

Intentional infliction of emotional distress

emotional distressintentionalinfliction of emotional distress
In the blaming distortion, other people are held responsible for the harm they cause, and especially for their intentional or negligent infliction of emotional distress.

Negligent infliction of emotional distress

emotional distressinfliction of emotional distressmental distress
In the blaming distortion, other people are held responsible for the harm they cause, and especially for their intentional or negligent infliction of emotional distress.

Social control

controlcivil obediencesocial sanctions
Relying on social control to obtain cooperative actions from another person

Attribution (psychology)

attribution theoryattributionattributions
Attributing personal responsibility, including the resulting praise or blame, to events over which the person has no control.

Illusion of control

describe free will as an illusionno control
Attributing personal responsibility, including the resulting praise or blame, to events over which the person has no control.