Cognitive science

cognitive scientistcognitive sciencescognitivecognitive scientistscognitive studiesbrain sciencephilosophy of cognitive sciencebrain sciencescognitioncognitive theory
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.wikipedia
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Mind

mentalhuman mindmental content
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
There is a lengthy tradition in philosophy, religion, psychology, and cognitive science about what constitutes a mind and what are its distinguishing properties.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Mental faculties of concern to cognitive scientists include language, perception, memory, attention, reasoning, and emotion; to understand these faculties, cognitive scientists borrow from fields such as linguistics, psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, and anthropology. Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field with contributors from various fields, including psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, philosophy of mind, computer science, anthropology and biology.
In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist.

Cognitive revolution

cognitive psychology
The cognitive sciences began as an intellectual movement in the 1950s often referred to as the cognitive revolution.
It later became known collectively as cognitive science.

Reason

reasoningratiocinationhuman reason
Mental faculties of concern to cognitive scientists include language, perception, memory, attention, reasoning, and emotion; to understand these faculties, cognitive scientists borrow from fields such as linguistics, psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, and anthropology.
Psychologists and cognitive scientists have attempted to study and explain how people reason, e.g. which cognitive and neural processes are engaged, and how cultural factors affect the inferences that people draw.

Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
Mental faculties of concern to cognitive scientists include language, perception, memory, attention, reasoning, and emotion; to understand these faculties, cognitive scientists borrow from fields such as linguistics, psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, and anthropology.
These kinds of definitions are often applied in studies of language within a cognitive science framework and in neurolinguistics.

Index of cognitive science articles

List of cognitive science topics
See List of cognitive science topics for a list of various aspects of the field.
Cognitive science is the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e.g. Luger 1994).

Connectionism

connectionistparallel distributed processingconnectionist models
The former view uses connectionism to study the mind, whereas the latter emphasizes symbolic computations.
Connectionism is an approach in the fields of cognitive science that hopes to explain mental phenomena using artificial neural networks (ANN).

Anthropology

anthropologistanthropologicalanthropologists
Mental faculties of concern to cognitive scientists include language, perception, memory, attention, reasoning, and emotion; to understand these faculties, cognitive scientists borrow from fields such as linguistics, psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, and anthropology. Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field with contributors from various fields, including psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, philosophy of mind, computer science, anthropology and biology.
As such, anthropology has been central in the development of several new (late 20th century) interdisciplinary fields such as cognitive science, global studies, and various ethnic studies.

Mark Johnson (philosopher)

Mark JohnsonJohnsonJohnson, M.
The term "cognitive" in "cognitive science" is used for "any kind of mental operation or structure that can be studied in precise terms" (Lakoff and Johnson, 1999).
He is known for contributions to embodied philosophy, cognitive science and cognitive linguistics, some of which he has coauthored with George Lakoff such as Metaphors We Live By.

Information

informativeinputinputs
Cognitive scientists study intelligence and behavior, with a focus on how nervous systems represent, process, and transform information.
The cognitive scientist and applied mathematician Ronaldo Vigo argues that information is a concept that requires at least two related entities to make quantitative sense.

Sense

sensesfive sensessensory
Perception is the ability to take in information via the senses, and process it in some way.
The senses and their operation, classification, and theory are overlapping topics studied by a variety of fields, most notably neuroscience, cognitive psychology (or cognitive science), and philosophy of perception.

Cognitive psychology

cognitive psychologistcognitivecognitive psychologists
Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines such as cognitive science and of psychological study, including educational psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology, linguistics, and economics.

Visual perception

visionsighteyesight
Vision and hearing are two dominant senses that allow us to perceive the environment.
The various physiological components involved in vision are referred to collectively as the visual system, and are the focus of much research in linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and molecular biology, collectively referred to as vision science.

Computer science

computer scientistcomputer sciencescomputer scientists
Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field with contributors from various fields, including psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, philosophy of mind, computer science, anthropology and biology.
Computer science research also often intersects other disciplines, such as philosophy, cognitive science, linguistics, mathematics, physics, biology, statistics, and logic.

Analytic philosophy

Analyticanalytic philosopheranalytical philosophy
This conceptualization is very broad, and should not be confused with how "cognitive" is used in some traditions of analytic philosophy, where "cognitive" has to do only with formal rules and truth conditional semantics.
During this period, topics of the philosophy of mind were often related strongly to topics of cognitive science such as modularity or innateness.

Electroencephalography

EEGelectroencephalogramelectroencephalograph
Event-related potentials (ERPs) refer to averaged EEG responses that are time-locked to more complex processing of stimuli; this technique is used in cognitive science, cognitive psychology, and psychophysiological research.

Psychology of reasoning

reasoninglogichow people reason
All the above approaches tend to be generalized to the form of integrated computational models of a synthetic/abstract intelligence, in order to be applied to the explanation and improvement of individual and social/organizational decision-making and reasoning.
It overlaps with psychology, philosophy, linguistics, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, logic, and probability theory.

Hybrid intelligent system

intelligent systemsHybrid intelligent systemshybrid
From the cognitive science perspective, every natural intelligent system is hybrid because it performs mental operations on both the symbolic and subsymbolic levels.

Steven Pinker

Pinker, StevenPinkerNancy Etcoff
In the area of language acquisition, for example, some (such as Steven Pinker) have argued that specific information containing universal grammatical rules must be contained in the genes, whereas others (such as Jeffrey Elman and colleagues in Rethinking Innateness) have argued that Pinker's claims are biologically unrealistic.
From 1982 until 2003, Pinker taught at the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT, was the co-director of the Center for Cognitive science (1985–1994), and eventually became the director of the Center for Cognitive neuroscience (1994–1999), taking a one-year sabbatical at the University of California, Santa Barbara, in 1995–96.

Cognition

cognitivecognitive functioncognitive process
It examines the nature, the tasks, and the functions of cognition (in a broad sense).
These and other different approaches to the analysis of cognition are synthesised in the developing field of cognitive science, a progressively autonomous academic discipline.

Philosophy of mind

mindmental philosophyphilosophy of the mind
Mental faculties of concern to cognitive scientists include language, perception, memory, attention, reasoning, and emotion; to understand these faculties, cognitive scientists borrow from fields such as linguistics, psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, and anthropology. Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field with contributors from various fields, including psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, philosophy of mind, computer science, anthropology and biology.
The list of such sciences includes: biology, computer science, cognitive science, cybernetics, linguistics, medicine, pharmacology, and psychology.

Cognitive model

cognitive modelingcognitive modellingCognitive space
Cognitive modeling historically developed within cognitive psychology/cognitive science (including human factors), and has received contributions from the fields of machine learning and artificial intelligence to name a few.

Personoid

In cognitive and software modeling, personoid is a research approach to the development of intelligent autonomous agents.

Cognitive bias

cognitive biasesbiascognitive
Cognitive science has given rise to models of human cognitive bias and risk perception, and has been influential in the development of behavioral finance, part of economics.
A continually evolving list of cognitive biases has been identified over the last six decades of research on human judgment and decision-making in cognitive science, social psychology, and behavioral economics.

Bayesian cognitive science

Bayesian models
Bayesian Cognitive Science (also known as Computational Cognitive Science; not to be confused with the more generic Computational modeling in cognitive science) is an approach to cognitive science concerned with the rational analysis of cognition through the use of Bayesian inference and cognitive modeling.