Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".
Figure illustrating the fields that contributed to the birth of cognitive science, including linguistics, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, philosophy, anthropology, and psychology
A phrenological mapping of the brain – phrenology was among the first attempts to correlate mental functions with specific parts of the brain although it is now widely discredited.
Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm intended for processing on a computer.
A well known example of a phrase structure tree. This is one way of representing human language that shows how different components are organized hierarchically.
René Descartes' illustration of mind/body dualism.
The Necker cube, an example of an optical illusion
Portrait of René Descartes by Frans Hals (1648)
An optical illusion. The square A is exactly the same shade of gray as square B. See checker shadow illusion.
Four varieties of dualism. The arrows indicate the direction of the causal interactions. Occasionalism is not shown.
Image of the human head with the brain. The arrow indicates the position of the hypothalamus.
The classic Identity theory and Anomalous Monism in contrast. For the Identity theory, every token instantiation of a single mental type corresponds (as indicated by the arrows) to a physical token of a single physical type. For anomalous monism, the token–token correspondences can fall outside of the type–type correspondences. The result is token identity.
An artificial neural network with two layers.
John Searle—one of the most influential philosophers of mind, proponent of biological naturalism (Berkeley 2002)
Since the 1980s, sophisticated neuroimaging procedures, such as fMRI (above), have furnished increasing knowledge about the workings of the human brain, shedding light on ancient philosophical problems.

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes with input from linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, computer science/artificial intelligence, and anthropology.

- Cognitive science

Mental faculties of concern to cognitive scientists include language, perception, memory, attention, reasoning, and emotion; to understand these faculties, cognitive scientists borrow from fields such as linguistics, psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, and anthropology.

- Cognitive science

These approaches have been particularly influential in the sciences, especially in the fields of sociobiology, computer science (specifically, artificial intelligence), evolutionary psychology and the various neurosciences.

- Philosophy of mind

Computer science research also often intersects other disciplines, such as cognitive science, linguistics, mathematics, physics, biology, Earth science, statistics, philosophy, and logic.

- Computer science

From its origins in cybernetics and in the Dartmouth Conference (1956), artificial intelligence research has been necessarily cross-disciplinary, drawing on areas of expertise such as applied mathematics, symbolic logic, semiotics, electrical engineering, philosophy of mind, neurophysiology, and social intelligence.

- Computer science

The list of such sciences includes: biology, computer science, cognitive science, cybernetics, linguistics, medicine, pharmacology, and psychology.

- Philosophy of mind
Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".

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