Coin

coinsspecieexerguecoinagecopper coinschangehard currencyspeciesxucoin-like
A coin is a small, flat, (usually, depending on the country or value) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.wikipedia
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Legal tender

demonetizeddemonetizationdemonetised
A coin is a small, flat, (usually, depending on the country or value) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
Coins and banknotes are usually defined as legal tender in many countries, but personal cheques, credit cards, and similar non-cash methods of payment are usually not.

Bullion coin

speciebullion coinsbullion
Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins.
A bullion coin is a coin struck from precious metal and kept as a store of value or an investment rather than used in day-to-day commerce.

Banknote

paper moneybanknotespaper currency
Other coins are used as money in everyday transactions, circulating alongside banknotes.
Historically, banks sought to ensure that they could always pay customers in coins when they presented banknotes for payment.

Metal

metalsmetal ionsmetal ion
A coin is a small, flat, (usually, depending on the country or value) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
Precious metals were historically used as coinage, but in the modern era, coinage metals have extended to at least 23 of the chemical elements.

Money

monetaryspeciecash
Other coins are used as money in everyday transactions, circulating alongside banknotes.
The money supply of a country consists of currency (banknotes and coins) and, depending on the particular definition used, one or more types of bank money (the balances held in checking accounts, savings accounts, and other types of bank accounts).

Silver

Agsilver orenative silver
Exceptions to the rule of face value being higher than content value also occur for some bullion coins made of copper, silver, or gold (and, rarely, other metals, such as platinum or palladium), intended for collectors or investors in precious metals. The currency of central Italy was influenced by its natural resources, with bronze being abundant (the Etruscans were famous metal workers in bronze and iron) and silver ore being scarce.
Other than in currency and as an investment medium (coins and bullion), silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, jewellery, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils (hence the term silverware), in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery.

Gold

Aunative goldgold dust
Exceptions to the rule of face value being higher than content value also occur for some bullion coins made of copper, silver, or gold (and, rarely, other metals, such as platinum or palladium), intended for collectors or investors in precious metals.
A relatively rare element, gold is a precious metal that has been used for coinage, jewelry, and other arts throughout recorded history.

Hoard

coin hoardhoardscache
If the difference becomes significant, the issuing authority may decide to withdraw these coins from circulation, possibly issuing new equivalents with a different composition, or the public may decide to melt the coins down or hoard them (see Gresham's law).
Hoards may be of precious metals, coinage, tools or less commonly, pottery or glass vessels.

Lydia

ancient LydiaLydian EmpireMaeonia
The earliest coins are mostly associated with Iron Age Anatolia of the late 7th century BC, and especially with the kingdom of Lydia.
Coins are said to have been invented in Lydia around the 7th century BC.

Gold coin

gold coinsgoldgold piece
He is credited with issuing the Croeseid, the first true gold coins with a standardized purity for general circulation. Important Roman gold and silver coins were continued into the Middle Ages (see Gold dinar, Solidus, Aureus, Denarius).
A gold coin is a coin that is made mostly or entirely of gold.

Silver coin

silversilver coinshigher silver content
Important Roman gold and silver coins were continued into the Middle Ages (see Gold dinar, Solidus, Aureus, Denarius).
Silver coins are possibly the oldest mass-produced form of coinage.

Penny

pencedpennies
The penny was minted as a silver coin until the 17th century.
A penny is a coin ( pl. pennies) or a unit of currency ( pl. pence) in various countries.

Mint (facility)

mintmintedmints
The penny was minted as a silver coin until the 17th century. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade.
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used as currency.

Gresham's law

Gresham’s Laweconomic theorygood money
If the difference becomes significant, the issuing authority may decide to withdraw these coins from circulation, possibly issuing new equivalents with a different composition, or the public may decide to melt the coins down or hoard them (see Gresham's law).
In Gresham's day, bad money included any coin that had been debased.

Roman currency

Roman coinsRoman coincoins
Standardized Roman currency was used throughout the Roman Empire.
Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, orichalcum and copper coinage (see: Roman metallurgy).

Electrum

green goldargentian goldalloy of the same name
Early electrum coins (a variable mix of gold and silver, typically with a ratio of about 54% gold to 44% silver) were not standardized in weight, and in their earliest stage may have been ritual objects, such as badges or medals, issued by priests.
The first metal coins ever made were of electrum and date back to the end of the 7th century or the beginning of the 6th century BCE.

Alyattes of Lydia

AlyattesAlyattes IAlyattes II
The first electrum coins issued by a monarch are those minted by king Alyattes of Lydia (died c. 560 BC), for which reason this king is sometimes mentioned as the originator of coinage.
Alyattes was the first monarch who issued coins, made from electrum (and his successor Croesus was the first to issue gold coins).

Tong Bei

bronze cowry shellsBronze Shell
These were replicas in bronze of earlier Chinese currency, cowrie shells, so they were named Bronze Shell.
Tong Bei literally translated as "Bronze Cowry" or "Bronze Shell", is an ancient coin found in China.

Solidus (coin)

solidisolidussou
Important Roman gold and silver coins were continued into the Middle Ages (see Gold dinar, Solidus, Aureus, Denarius).
The lightweight solidi were distinguished by different markings on the coin, usually in the exergue for the 20 and 22 siliquae coins, and by stars in the field for the 23 siliquae coins.

Punch-marked coins

Punch marked coinspunch-marked coinpunch marks
The Karshapana is the earliest punch-marked coin found in India, produced from at least the mid-4th century BC, and possibly as early as 575 BC, influenced by similar coins produced in Gandhara under the Achaemenid empire, such as those of the Kabul hoard, or other examples found at Pushkalavati and in Bhir Mound.
19th-century proposals which suggested an origin from as early as 1000 BC, independent of the introduction of coins in Asia Minor, are "no longer given any credence".

Currency

currenciesforeign currencycoinage
The currency of central Italy was influenced by its natural resources, with bronze being abundant (the Etruscans were famous metal workers in bronze and iron) and silver ore being scarce.
A currency (from, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific sense is money in any form when in use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.

Copper

CuCu 2+ cupric
By replacing some fraction of a coin's precious metal content with a base metal (often copper or nickel), the intrinsic value of each individual coin was reduced (thereby "debasing" the money), allowing the coining authority to produce more coins than would otherwise be possible.
Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement.

Token coin

tokenstokensubway token
Thus, these coins are monetary tokens, just as paper currency is: they are usually not backed by metal, but rather by some form of government guarantee.
In numismatics, token coins or trade tokens are coin-like objects used instead of coins.

Nickel (United States coin)

nickelnickelsWestward Journey Nickel Series
Examples are the pre-1965 US dime, quarter, half dollar, and dollar (nominally containing slightly less than a tenth, quarter, half, and full ounce of silver, respectively), US nickel, and pre-1982 US penny.
A nickel, in American usage, is a five-cent coin struck by the United States Mint.

Kabul

Kabul, AfghanistanNeighborhood of KabulKabul City
The Kabul hoard, also called the Chaman Hazouri hoard, is a coin hoard discovered in the vicinity of Kabul, Afghanistan, containing numerous Achaemenid coins as well as many Greek coins from the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.