Collective bargaining

collectively bargaincollective bargaining agreementbargain collectivelycollective bargaining agreementsbargaincollective agreementscollective agreementcollective labour conventionscollectively bargainedcontract
Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at agreements to regulate working salaries, working conditions, benefits, and other aspects of workers' compensation and rights for workers.wikipedia
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Negotiation

negotiatornegotiationsnegotiating
Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at agreements to regulate working salaries, working conditions, benefits, and other aspects of workers' compensation and rights for workers.
It is aimed to resolve points of difference, to gain advantage for an individual or collective, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests.

Trade union

uniontrade unionistlabor union
The interests of the employees are commonly presented by representatives of a trade union to which the employees belong.
Today, unions are usually formed for the purpose of securing improvement in pay, benefits, working conditions, or social and political status through collective bargaining by the increased bargaining power wielded by the banding of the workers.

Collective agreement

collective bargaining agreementcollective agreementsCBA
The collective agreements reached by these negotiations usually set out wage scales, working hours, training, health and safety, overtime, grievance mechanisms, and rights to participate in workplace or company affairs.
A collective agreement, collective labour agreement (CLA) or collective bargaining agreement (CBA) is a written contract negotiated through collective bargaining for employees by one or more trade unions with the management of a company (or with an employers' association) that regulates the terms and conditions of employees at work.

Beatrice Webb

BeatriceB WebbBeatrice Potter
The term "collective bargaining" was first used in 1891 by Beatrice Webb, a founder of the field of industrial relations in Britain.
It was Webb who coined the term collective bargaining.

National Labor Relations Act of 1935

National Labor Relations ActWagner ActNational Labor Relations Act 1935
In the United States, the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 made it illegal for any employer to deny union rights to an employee. In the United States, the National Labor Relations Act (1935) covers most collective agreements in the private sector.
The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (also known as the Wagner Act) is a foundational statute of United States labor law which guarantees the right of private sector employees to organize into trade unions, engage in collective bargaining, and take collective action such as strikes.

National Labor Relations Board

NLRBChairman of the National Labor Relations BoardNational Labor Board
An issue of jurisdiction surfaced in National Labor Relations Board v. Catholic Bishop of Chicago (1979) when the Supreme Court held that the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) could not assert jurisdiction over a church-operated school because such jurisdiction would violate the First Amendment establishment of freedom of religion and the separation of church of state.
The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) is an independent agency of the federal government of the United States with responsibilities for enforcing U.S. labor law in relation to collective bargaining and unfair labor practices.

Employers' organization

employers' associationemployers' organisationemployers' federation
Collective bargaining consists of the process of negotiation between representatives of a union and employers (generally represented by management, or, in some countries such as Austria, Sweden and the Netherlands, by an employers' organization) in respect of the terms and conditions of employment of employees, such as wages, hours of work, working conditions, grievance procedures, and about the rights and responsibilities of trade unions.
The emergence of trade unions and their efforts to establish collective bargaining agreements on a local or an industry-wide level ultimately paved the way for combined action by competitors employing such labor in common.

Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention

Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948right to organize87
The Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948 (C087) and several other conventions specifically protect collective bargaining through the creation of international labour standards that discourage countries from violating workers' rights to associate and collectively bargain.
Part 1 consists of ten articles which outline the rights of both worker and employers to "join organisations of their own choosing without previous authorisation."

International Labour Organization

ILOInternational Labour OfficeInternational Labor Organization
Item 2(a) of the International Labour Organization's Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work defines the "freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining" as an essential right of workers.
And in December 1918, the American Federation of Labor (AFL) issued its own distinctively apolitical report, which called for the achievement of numerous incremental improvements via the collective bargaining process.

United Kingdom labour law

UK labour lawBritish labour lawlabour law
This works through collective bargaining, underpinned by the right to strike, and a growing set of rights of direct workplace participation.

International labour law

international labor standardsinternational labour standardslabor standards
The Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948 (C087) and several other conventions specifically protect collective bargaining through the creation of international labour standards that discourage countries from violating workers' rights to associate and collectively bargain.
In 1998, the ILO International Labour Conference adopted the “Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work” defining certain rights as “fundamental.” The Declaration commits member states to respect and promote these main principles, referred to as the core conventions, which are grouped into the following four categories (total of eight ILO conventions): freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining, the elimination of forced or compulsory labour, the abolition of child labour, and the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.

American Federation of Labor

AFLAmerican Federation of LabourA. F. of L.
The American Federation of Labor was formed in 1886, providing unprecedented bargaining powers for a variety of workers.
Over time, after repeated disappointments with the failure of labor's legislative efforts to protect workers' rights, which the courts had struck down as unconstitutional, Gompers became almost anti-political, opposing some forms of protective legislation, such as limitations on working hours, because they would detract from the efforts of unions to obtain those same benefits through collective bargaining.

United States labor law

US labor lawlabor lawU.S. labor law
But to increase their bargaining power to get better terms, employees organize labor unions for collective bargaining.

Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949

Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention98Right to Organize
Second, articles 4 to 6 require the positive creation of rights to collective bargaining, and that each member state's law promotes it.

Freedom of association

associationright of associationfree association
Item 2(a) of the International Labour Organization's Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work defines the "freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining" as an essential right of workers.
In the international labour movement, the freedom of association is a right identified under international labour standards as the right of workers to organize and collectively bargain.

2011 Wisconsin protests

2011 Wisconsin budget protestsprotestsespecially in Wisconsin
After the collective bargaining bill was upheld by the Wisconsin Supreme Court on June 14, the number of protesters declined to about 1,000 within a couple days.

Surface bargaining

In collective bargaining, surface bargaining is a strategy in which one of the parties "merely goes through the motions," with no intention of reaching an agreement.

Project Labor Agreement

Project Labor AgreementsExecutive Order 13502
A Project Labor Agreement (PLA), also known as a Community Workforce Agreement, is a pre-hire collective bargaining agreement with one or more labor organizations that establishes the terms and conditions of employment for a specific construction project.

Civic Openness In Negotiations

Civic Openness In Negotiations (COIN)
Civic Openness in Negotiations (COIN) is a set of Collective Bargaining rules involving government agencies and public labor unions intended to ensure transparency and accountability.

Labour law

labor lawemployment lawlabor laws
A collective agreement functions as a labour contract between an employer and one or more unions.
Trade unions are organized groups of workers who engage in collective bargaining with employers.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
In the United States, the National Labor Relations Act (1935) covers most collective agreements in the private sector.
This is largely because at-risk workers get almost no government support and are further set back by a very weak collective bargaining system.

Right-to-work law

right-to-workRight to Workright-to-work legislation
In 1936, as a part of its ruling in Carter v. Carter Coal Co. the Court ruled against mandatory collective bargaining, stating:

2011 United States public employee protests

Februarypublic-employee protestssustained protests
The protests occurred when public employee unions mounted protests against legislation proposed by Republican governors such as Scott Walker (Wisconsin), Rick Scott (Florida), Mitch Daniels (Indiana), Sean Parnell (Alaska), Rick Snyder (Michigan), John Kasich (Ohio), Paul LePage (Maine) and Jan Brewer (Arizona) which, among other things, would strip public employees of some collective bargaining rights as well as require higher employee contributions to pension and health care plans.