Collective intelligence

group mindcollectivecollective mindgroup intelligenceShared intelligenceSymbiotic intelligenceco-intelligenceCollective learningcollective problem solvingCollective reasoning
Collective intelligence (CI) is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making.wikipedia
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Pierre Lévy

Pierre LevyPierre Lévy (philosopher)
Pierre Lévy defines collective intelligence as, "It is a form of universally distributed intelligence, constantly enhanced, coordinated in real time, and resulting in the effective mobilization of skills. I'll add the following indispensable characteristic to this definition: The basis and goal of collective intelligence is mutual recognition and enrichment of individuals rather than the cult of fetishized or hypostatized communities." Writers who have influenced the idea of collective intelligence include Francis Galton, Douglas Hofstadter (1979), Peter Russell (1983), Tom Atlee (1993), Pierre Lévy (1994), Howard Bloom (1995), Francis Heylighen (1995), Douglas Engelbart, Louis Rosenberg, Cliff Joslyn, Ron Dembo, Gottfried Mayer-Kress (2003).
He introduced the collective intelligence concept in his 1994 book L'intelligence collective: Pour une anthropologie du cyberspace (Collective Intelligence: Mankind's Emerging World in Cyberspace).

Global brain

global consciousness
Other antecedents are Vladimir Vernadsky and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's concept of "noosphere" and H.G. Wells's concept of "world brain" (see also the term "global brain").
The intelligence of this network is collective or distributed: it is not centralized or localized in any particular individual, organization or computer system.

Collective consciousness

hive mindgroup mindcollective conscience
He develops the concept of a 'group mind' as articulated by Thomas Hobbes in "Leviathan" and Fechner's arguments for a collective consciousness of mankind.
This has also been termed "hive mind", "group mind", "mass mind", and "social mind".

Henry Jenkins

Jenkins, HenryHenry Jenkins IIIJenkins
Media theorist Henry Jenkins sees collective intelligence as an 'alternative source of media power', related to convergence culture.
Building on his studies of media fans and participatory culture, Jenkins has emphasized that transmedia storytelling strategies are well-suited for harnessing the collective intelligence of media users.

Collaboration

collaborativecollaboratecollaborated
Collective intelligence (CI) is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making.
Enterprise collaboration tools focus on encouraging collective intelligence and staff collaboration at the organization level, or with partners.

Douglas Engelbart

Doug EngelbartDouglas C. EngelbartDouglas Englebart
Writers who have influenced the idea of collective intelligence include Francis Galton, Douglas Hofstadter (1979), Peter Russell (1983), Tom Atlee (1993), Pierre Lévy (1994), Howard Bloom (1995), Francis Heylighen (1995), Douglas Engelbart, Louis Rosenberg, Cliff Joslyn, Ron Dembo, Gottfried Mayer-Kress (2003).
Engelbart attended the Program for the Future 2010 Conference where hundreds of people convened at The Tech Museum in San Jose and online to engage in dialog about how to pursue his vision to augment collective intelligence.

MIT Center for Collective Intelligence

The MIT Center for Collective Intelligence, for instance, announced the detection of The Genome of Collective Intelligence as one of its main goals aiming to develop a taxonomy of organizational building blocks, or genes, that can be combined and recombined to harness the intelligence of crowds.
The MIT Center for Collective Intelligence (CCI) is a research center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, headed by Professor Thomas W. Malone, that focuses on the study of collective intelligence.

Tom Atlee

Co-intelligenceCointelligence
Writers who have influenced the idea of collective intelligence include Francis Galton, Douglas Hofstadter (1979), Peter Russell (1983), Tom Atlee (1993), Pierre Lévy (1994), Howard Bloom (1995), Francis Heylighen (1995), Douglas Engelbart, Louis Rosenberg, Cliff Joslyn, Ron Dembo, Gottfried Mayer-Kress (2003).
In 1996, he founded the Co-Intelligence Institute, a non-profit organization facilitating and researching self-organization, collective intelligence, participatory modes of governance and collaborative democracy.

Collaborative intelligence

Collective intelligence as represented by Web 2.0 has less user engagement than collaborative intelligence.
When the computer science community adopted the term collective intelligence and gave that term a specific technical denotation, a complementary term was needed to distinguish between anonymous homogeneity in collective prediction systems and non-anonymous heterogeneity in collaborative problem-solving systems.

Francis Heylighen

Heylighen, FrancisF. HeylighenHeylighen F.
Writers who have influenced the idea of collective intelligence include Francis Galton, Douglas Hofstadter (1979), Peter Russell (1983), Tom Atlee (1993), Pierre Lévy (1994), Howard Bloom (1995), Francis Heylighen (1995), Douglas Engelbart, Louis Rosenberg, Cliff Joslyn, Ron Dembo, Gottfried Mayer-Kress (2003).
Together with his PhD student Johan Bollen, Heylighen was the first to propose algorithms that could turn the world-wide web into a self-organizing, learning network that exhibits collective intelligence, i.e. a Global brain.

Collective wisdom

group wisdom
These theorists are more likely to refer to ecological and collective wisdom and to the role of consensus process in making ontological distinctions than to any form of "intelligence" as such, which they often argue does not exist, or is mere "cleverness".
Collective wisdom, also called group wisdom and co-intelligence, is shared knowledge arrived at by individuals and groups.

Superorganism

superorganismscoordination of living organismsSuper Organism
Wheeler saw this collaborative process at work in ants that acted like the cells of a single beast he called a superorganism.

Cliff Joslyn

Joslyn
Writers who have influenced the idea of collective intelligence include Francis Galton, Douglas Hofstadter (1979), Peter Russell (1983), Tom Atlee (1993), Pierre Lévy (1994), Howard Bloom (1995), Francis Heylighen (1995), Douglas Engelbart, Louis Rosenberg, Cliff Joslyn, Ron Dembo, Gottfried Mayer-Kress (2003).

Epistemic democracy

epistemic
The idea of collective intelligence also forms the framework for contemporary democratic theories often referred to as epistemic democracy.

World Brain

World Encyclopaedia
Other antecedents are Vladimir Vernadsky and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's concept of "noosphere" and H.G. Wells's concept of "world brain" (see also the term "global brain").

Swarm intelligence

Artificial Swarm IntelligenceHive mindswarm
To address the problems of serialized aggregation of input among large-scale groups, recent advancements collective intelligence have worked to replace serialized votes, polls, and markets, with parallel systems such as "human swarms" modeled after synchronous swarms in nature.
As published by Rosenberg (2015), such real-time systems enable groups of human participants to behave as a unified collective intelligence that works as a single entity to make predictions, answer questions, and evoke opinions.

Civic intelligence

Social movements and political engagement in history might have been partly involved with collective thinking and civic intelligence.

Mass collaboration

Massively distributed collaborationInternet think tankscooperative annotation
According to Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, collective intelligence is mass collaboration.

Group mind (science fiction)

hive mindgroup mindhive-mind
A group mind, hive mind, group ego, mind coalescence, or gestalt intelligence in science fiction is a plot device in which multiple minds, or consciousnesses, are linked into a single, collective consciousness or intelligence.

Open-source intelligence

open source intelligenceOSINTopen sources
It is not related to open-source software or collective intelligence.

Web 2.0

Enterprise 2.02.0Web2.0
Collective intelligence as represented by Web 2.0 has less user engagement than collaborative intelligence.

Collaborative innovation network

Collaborative Innovation Networks
It has been defined by the originator of the term, Peter Gloor from MIT Sloan's Center for Collective Intelligence, as "a cyberteam of self-motivated people with a collective vision, enabled by the Web to collaborate in achieving a common goal by sharing ideas, information, and work".

Alternate reality game

ARGalternate reality gamesalternative reality game
Gosney extends this issue of Collective Intelligence in videogames one step further in his discussion of alternate reality gaming.
Instead of challenging collective intelligence to solve a game mastered puzzle, World Without Oil's puppetmasters acted as players to guide the "collective imagination" to create a multi-authored chronicle of the alternative future, purportedly as it was happening.

Groupthink

group thinkgroup-thinkgroup mind
Atlee feels that collective intelligence can be encouraged "to overcome 'groupthink' and individual cognitive bias in order to allow a collective to cooperate on one process – while achieving enhanced intellectual performance."

James Surowiecki

Surowiecki, James
James Surowiecki divides the advantages of disorganized decision-making into three main categories, which are cognition, cooperation and coordination.
In 2004, he published The Wisdom of Crowds, in which he argued that in some circumstances, large groups exhibit more intelligence than smaller, more elite groups, and that collective intelligence shapes business, economies, societies and nations.