Colloid

colloidscolloidalcolloid chemistrycolloidal suspensionhydrocolloidcolloidal particlescontinuous phasedispersed phasehydrocolloidssuspension
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble or soluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.wikipedia
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Mixture

mixturesmixingadmixture
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble or soluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
A mixture is the physical combination of two or more substances in which the identities are retained and are mixed in the form of solutions, suspensions and colloids.

Tyndall effect

Tyndall scatteringaqueous flareTyndall
Some colloids are translucent because of the Tyndall effect, which is the scattering of light by particles in the colloid.
The Tyndall effect is light scattering by particles in a colloid or in a very fine suspension.

Solution

solutesolutessolutions
Unlike a solution, whose solute and solvent constitute only one phase, a colloid has a dispersed phase (the suspended particles) and a continuous phase (the medium of suspension) that arise by phase separation.
Counter examples are provided by liquid mixtures that are not homogeneous: colloids, suspensions, emulsions are not considered solutions.

Francesco Selmi

This field of study was introduced in 1845 by Italian chemist Francesco Selmi and further investigated since 1861 by Scottish scientist Thomas Graham.
Francesco Selmi (7 April 1817 – 13 August 1881) was an Italian chemist and patriot, one of the founders of colloid chemistry.

Biomolecular condensate

The cytoplasm of living cells is an example of a colloid, containing many types of biomolecular condensate.
Instead they are formed by phase separation of proteins and other biopolymers into a colloidal emulsion or gel-sol, which is determined by the physical chemistry of these polymers.

Thomas Graham (chemist)

Thomas GrahamGrahamGraham, Thomas
This field of study was introduced in 1845 by Italian chemist Francesco Selmi and further investigated since 1861 by Scottish scientist Thomas Graham.
He is regarded as one of the founders of colloid chemistry.

Emulsion

emulsifieremulsifiersemulsions
Emulsions are part of a more general class of two-phase systems of matter called colloids.

Suspension (chemistry)

suspensionsuspensionsaqueous suspension
Sometimes the dispersed substance alone is called the colloid; the term colloidal suspension refers unambiguously to the overall mixture (although a narrower sense of the word suspension is distinguished from colloids by larger particle size).
This distinguishes a suspension from a colloid, in which the suspended particles are smaller and do not settle.

Whipped cream

whipped toppingchantilly creamCrème Chantilly
Whipped cream is a culinary colloid produced when heavy cream is subjected to mechanical aeration.

Interface and colloid science

colloidal chemistrydispersed particlesdispersion medium
Colloidal suspensions are the subject of interface and colloid science.
Interface and colloid science is an interdisciplinary intersection of branches of chemistry, physics, nanoscience and other fields dealing with colloids, heterogeneous systems consisting of a mechanical mixture of particles between 1 nm and 1000 nm dispersed in a continuous medium.

Foam

frothfoamslather
When the principal scale is small, i.e., for a very fine foam, this dispersed medium can be considered a type of colloid.

Ultramicroscope

ultramicroscopicultramicroscopy
Such particles are normally easily visible in an optical microscope, although at the smaller size range (r < 250 nm), an ultramicroscope or an electron microscope may be required.
In the system, the particles to be observed are dispersed in a liquid or gas colloid (or less often in a coarser suspension).

Ice cloud

An ice cloud is a colloid of ice particles dispersed in air.

Sol (colloid)

solsolscolloidal sol
A sol is a colloid made out of very small solid particles in a continuous liquid medium.

Phase (matter)

phasephasesgas phase
Unlike a solution, whose solute and solvent constitute only one phase, a colloid has a dispersed phase (the suspended particles) and a continuous phase (the medium of suspension) that arise by phase separation.
Emulsions and colloids are examples of immiscible phase pair combinations that do not physically separate.

Depletion force

Asakura-Oosawadepletion forceshard-code
A depletion force is an effective attractive force that arises between large colloidal particles that are suspended in a dilute solution of depletants, which are smaller solutes that are preferentially excluded from the vicinity of the large particles.

Cytoplasm

cytoplasmiccytosolicintracytoplasmic
The cytoplasm of living cells is an example of a colloid, containing many types of biomolecular condensate.
It is thought that the component molecules and structures of the cytoplasm behave at times like a disordered colloidal solution (sol) and at other times like an integrated network, forming a solid mass (gel).

Colloidal gold

gold nanoparticlesgold nanoparticlegold
Colloidal gold is a sol or colloidal suspension of nanoparticles of gold in a fluid, usually water.

Particle aggregation

aggregationaggregateagglomeration
Particle agglomeration refers to formation of assemblages in a suspension and represents a mechanism leading to the functional destabilization of colloidal systems.

Gel

hydrogelsgelsjelly
A hydrogel is a network of polymer chains that are hydrophilic, sometimes found as a colloidal gel in which water is the dispersion medium.

Flocculation

flocculateagglomerationdeflocculant
Therefore, local changes in concentration (e.g.Creaming and Sedimentation) and global changes in size (e.g. flocculation, coalescence) are detected and monitored.
Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process in which colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.

Milk

cow's milkcow milkwhole milk
Milk is an emulsion or colloid of butterfat globules within a water-based fluid that contains dissolved carbohydrates and protein aggregates with minerals.

Zeta potential

electrokinetic potentialelectrokineticzeta-potential
Zeta potential is a scientific term for electrokinetic potential in colloidal dispersions.

Cranberry glass

red glassruby glassCranberry
The finished, hardened glass is a type of colloid, a solid phase (gold) dispersed inside another solid phase (glass).

Stöber process

silicaStober process
Silica produced using the Stöber process is an ideal material to serve as a model for studying colloid phenomena because of the monodispersity (uniformity) of its particle sizes.