A report on Colombia

Location map of the pre-Columbian cultures of Colombia
An illustration of the Battle of Cartagena de Indias, a major Spanish victory in the War of Jenkins' Ear
Many intellectual leaders of the independence process participated in the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada.
The Battle of Boyacá was the decisive battle that ensured success of the liberation campaign of New Granada.
The Socorro Province was the site of the genesis of the independence process.
Formation of the present Colombia since the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire
The Bogotazo in 1948
The Axis of Peace and Memory, a memorial to the victims of the Colombian conflict (1964–present)
Former President Juan Manuel Santos signed a peace accord
Relief map
Colombia map of Köppen climate classification
Mountain climate is one of the unique features of the Andes and other high altitude reliefs
The national flower of Colombia, the endemic orchid Cattleya trianae, is named for Colombian botanist and physician José Jerónimo Triana.
Casa de Nariño is the official home and principal workplace of the President of Colombia.
Capitolio Nacional seat of the Congress.
The VII Summit of the Pacific Alliance: Former President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos is second from the left.
Arpía III of the Colombian Air Force
Colombia GDP by sector in 2017.
Historical GDP per capita development
The Colombian Stock Exchange is part of the Latin American Integrated Market (MILA).
Colciencias is a Colombian Government agency that supports fundamental and applied research.
Port of Cartagena.
Population density of Colombia in 2007
The Las Lajas Sanctuary in the southern Colombian Department of Nariño
The Nobel literature prize winner Gabriel García Márquez
Vargas Swamp Lancers, artwork by Rodrigo Arenas Betancourt
Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox, an architectural site with colonial elements
Villa de Leyva main plaza
Regions of Colombia by its traditional music.
Colombian tiple
Teatro Colón of Bogotá houses the Ibero-American Theater Festival of Bogotá, one of the biggest theater festivals in the world.
The Cartagena Film Festival is the oldest cinema event in Latin America. The central focus is on films from Ibero-America.
Sancocho de gallina criolla is a traditional soup in Colombia.
Mariana Pajón is a Colombian cyclist, two-time Olympic gold medalist and BMX World Champion.
Colombia leads the annual América Economía ranking of the best clinics and hospitals in Latin America.
M5 building – National University of Colombia, designed by Pedro Nel Gómez
Mario Laserna Building – University of Los Andes

Country in South America with an insular region in North America.

- Colombia

314 related topics with Alpha



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The Bogotá savanna is the high plateau in the Andes where Bogotá is located. The flatlands are clearly visible in the topography and the result of a Pleistocene lake; Lake Humboldt, that existed until around 30,000 years BP
The Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, founder of the city
Iglesia de San Francisco is the oldest church standing in Bogotá, built between 1557-1566, located in La Candelaria (the city Oldest part)
Bolívar Square and the cathedral
The Plateresque Colonial Colegio Mayor de San Bartolomé, built between 1604-1622.
The Royal Street (in 1869), today known as Seventh Avenue (Carrera Séptima)
Bogotá La Sabana railway station
Bogotá is the third largest city within city limits in South America by population, after São Paulo and Lima
International Business Center, Bogotá, D.C.
Hailstorm in Bogotá
Eastern Hills
Sumapaz Páramo
Street arrangement of Bogotá based on the Cartesian coordinate system: North is to the right. (Typical maps for the city place the north on the left.)
View of Bogotá from the mountain Monserrate
Bogotá Future Population (Medium Variant)
The Centro Andino
Parque La Colina Shopping Mall
An old house in the Teusaquillo locality, near downtown Bogotá (Estrato 4)
Map of the TransMilenio system
El Dorado International Airport
Ciclovía in Bogotá
BD Bacatá, under construction, will be the city's tallest building.
Colombian National Museum
Ibero-American Theater Festival
Teatro de Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Columbus Theater)
Estadio El Campín
Monserrate Sanctuary at top of the mount
Atlantis Plaza Mall, featuring the Hard Rock Cafe
La Candelaria, the historical district of the city
Maloka Museum
Bi-articulated TransMilenio bus
Urban (SITP) bus, part of the integrated public transport system
Bikepath in central Bogotá
Traffic on the Northern Highway (Autopista Norte)
"El Claustro" at the Del Rosario University
Luis Carlos Sarmiento Building of Science and Technology at the National University of Colombia
Centro Ático at Pontifical Xavierian University
Mario Laserna Building at the University of the Andes
Liberators Building at El Bosque University
Sergio Arboleda University
Main Cloister at Saint Thomas Aquinas University
Santa Barbara business district
Victorian architecture in Teusaquillo
Torres del Parque
Santa Maria bullring
National Library of Colombia
Julio Mario Santo Domingo Public Library
Virgilio Barco Public Library
El Tintal Public Library
Church of Our Lady of Lourdes
El Lugar de Su Presencia
Bogotá Colombia Temple
Abou Bakr Al-Siddiq Mosque
Ajiaco is one of the city's most representative dishes
"Chocolate santafereño" (Santafe hot chocolate), almojábana, cheese and pandebono
Simón Bolívar Park
Journalists' park
93 Park
Santander park
El Virrey park
Santa Clara Church Museum built between 1629 and 1647. It has a large collection of colonial Colombian paintings.
Colonial Art Museum of Bogotá
Gold Museum of Bogotá
Archaeology Museum of Pasca
Botero Museum

Bogotá (, also, , ), officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santa Fe de Bogotá during the Spanish period and between 1991 and 2000, is the capital of Colombia, and one of the largest cities in the world.


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Country in western South America.

Country in western South America.

Remains of a Caral/Norte Chico pyramid in the arid Supe Valley
Moche earrings depicting warriors, made of turquoise and gold (1–800 CE)
The citadel of Machu Picchu, an iconic symbol of pre-Columbian Peru
Cusco, capital of the Inca Empire
Main façade of the Lima Metropolitan Cathedral and the Archbishop's palace, Lima
The Battle of Ayacucho was decisive in ensuring Peruvian independence.
The Battle of Angamos, during the War of the Pacific.
Areas where the Shining Path was active in Peru.
Palacio de Gobierno, in Lima
The Congress of Peru, in Lima
A map of Peru's region and departments
The headquarters of the Andean Community is located in Lima
Peruvian marines in the VRAEM in 2019
Map of Köppen climate classification zones in Peru
Andean cock-of-the-rock, Peru's national bird
Real GDP per capita development of Peru
A proportional representation of Peru exports, 2019
Casa de Osambela, headquarters of the Academia Peruana de la Lengua (APL) in Lima
Quri Kancha and the Convent of Santo Domingo, Cusco
National University of San Marcos, Lima
Moche Nariguera depicting the Decapitator, gold with turquoise and chrysocolla inlays. Museo del Oro del Peru, Lima
'Quipus' were recording devices fashioned from strings historically used by a number of cultures in the region of Andean South America.
Saint Joseph and the Christ Child, Anonymous, Colonial Cusco Painting School, 17th–18th century
Ceviche is a popular lime-marinated seafood dish which originated in Peru.
Marinera Norteña
Francisco Pizarro
Jorge Chávez International Airport, in Callao

It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the south and west by the Pacific Ocean.


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Tumaco-La Tolita mythological figure in feathered costume. Between 100 BC and 100 AD. Found in Esmeraldas
Ruins of Ingapirca, this site served as an outpost and provisioning of the Incan troops, but mainly it was a place of worship and veneration to the sun, the supreme Inca God, thus constituting a Coricancha, dedicated to the Inca ritual.
Pre-Columbian shrunken head of the Shuars (Jivaroan peoples).
Major square of Quito. Painting of 18th century. Quito Painting Colonial School.
Venezuelan independence leader Antonio José de Sucre
The "Guayaquil Conference" was the meeting between the two main Spanish South American independence leaders. In it the form of government of the nascent countries was discussed, San Martín opted for a unified South America in the form of a monarchy, while Bolívar opted for the same but into a republic. 1843 painting.
Antique dug out canoes in the courtyard of the Old Military Hospital in the Historic Center of Quito
Map of the former Gran Colombia in 1824 (named in its time as Colombia), the Gran Colombia covered all the colored region.
Ecuador in 1832
South America (1879): All land claims by Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Bolivia in 1879
Map of Ecuadorian land claims after 1916
Ecuadorian troops during the Cenepa War
The Mirage F.1JA (FAE-806) was one aircraft involved in the claimed shooting down of two Peruvian Sukhoi Su-22 on 10 February 1995.
President Lenín Moreno, first lady Rocío González Navas and his predecessor Rafael Correa, 3 April 2017
Palacio de Carondelet, the executive branch of the Ecuadorian Government
Adult Galápagos sea lion resting on a park bench in Puerto Baquerizo Moreno.
Ecuadorian President Lenín Moreno with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, 20 July 2019
Map of Ecuador
Ecuadorian Air Force (FAE)
Ecuadorian topography
A view of the Cotopaxi volcano, in Cotopaxi Province
Birds in the Yasuni National Park
Baños de Agua Santa is an important tourist site
Ecuador is one of the most megadiverse countries in the world, it also has the most biodiversity per square kilometer of any nation, and is one of the highest endemism worldwide. In the image, the spectacled bear of the Andes.
Amazon rainforest in Ecuador
A proportional representation of Ecuador exports, 2019
GDP per capita development of Ecuador
The United States dollar is the common currency circulation in Ecuador
World Trade Center headquarters in Guayaquil
EXA's first satellite, NEE-01 Pegasus
The historic center of Quito has one of the largest and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas. The city also houses a large number of museums.
The Trolebús bus rapid transit system that runs through Quito. It is the principal BRT in Ecuador.
Railways in Ecuador (interactive map)
Population pyramid in 2020
IESS Hospital in Latacunga
The oldest observatory in South America is the Quito Astronomical Observatory, founded in 1873 and located in Quito, Ecuador. The Quito Astronomical Observatory is managed by the National Polytechnic School.
Cañari children with the typical Andean indigenous clothes
Huaorani man with the typical Amazonian indigenous clothes
Juan Montalvo

Ecuador (Quechua: Ikwayur; Shuar: Ecuador or Ekuatur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Quechua: Ikwadur Ripuwlika; Shuar: Ekuatur Nunka), is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.


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Country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and many islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea.

Country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and many islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea.

The German Welser Armada exploring Venezuela.
El Libertador, Simón Bolívar.
Revolution of 19 April 1810, the beginning of Venezuela's independence, by Martín Tovar y Tovar
The signing of Venezuela's independence, by Martín Tovar y Tovar.
Flag of Venezuela between 1954 and 2006.
Rómulo Betancourt (president 1945–1948 / 1959–1964), one of the major democracy leaders of Venezuela.
Table where the Puntofijo Pact was signed on 31 October 1958
Sabana Grande district, Caracas (1973)
President Carlos Andrés Pérez was impeached on corruption charges in 1993.
Chávez with fellow South American presidents Néstor Kirchner of Argentina and Lula da Silva of Brazil
Nicolás Maduro with Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff at the 48th Mercosur Summit in Brazil in 2015.
Maduro was inaugurated for a contested and controversial second term on 10 January 2019.
Topographic map of Venezuela
Venezuela map of Köppen climate classification
The national animal of Venezuela is the troupial (Icterus icterus),
Valencia Lake, formerly praised by Alexander von Humboldt for its beauty, is massively polluted due to the countless sewage systems pouring residuals.
Bolívar Peak, the highest mountain in Venezuela
Los Llanos, Apure state
Valle de Mifafí, Mérida State
Médanos de Coro National Park, Falcón State
National Assembly of Venezuela building
Protests in Altamira, Caracas (2014)
The Guayana Esequiba claim area is a territory administered by Guyana and historically claimed by Venezuela.
President Maduro among other Latin American leaders participating in a 2017 ALBA gathering
A Sukhoi Su-30MKV of the Venezuelan Air Force
Map of the Venezuelan federation
A proportional representation of Venezuela exports, 2019
Líder Mall, one of the main shopping centers in Caracas
Ángel falls one of Venezuela's top tourist attractions, the world highest waterfall
Empty shelves in a store in Venezuela due to shortages in 2014
Venezuela's exports of crude oil from January 2018 to December 2019
A map of world oil reserves according to OPEC, 2013. Venezuela has the world's largest oil reserves.
Caracas Metro in Los Jardines Station
The Venezuelan Academy of Language studies the development of the Spanish in the country.
University Hospital, Central University of Venezuela
Illiteracy rate in Venezuela based on data from UNESCO and the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) of Venezuela
The joropo, as depicted in a 1912 drawing by Eloy Palacios
Antonio Herrera Toro, self portrait 1880
The Guanaguanare dance, a popular dance in Portuguesa State
Venezuela national baseball team in 2015
Venezuela national football team, popularly known as the "Vinotinto"
Venezuelan diaspora in the world
+ 1,000,000
+ 100,000
+ 10,000
+ 1,000

The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south, Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana.


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Embera girl dressed for a dance
Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a recognized and popular figure of Panamanian history
"New Caledonia", the ill-fated Scottish Darien scheme colony in the Bay of Caledonia, west of the Gulf of Darien
Santo Domingo Church
1903 political cartoon. The US government, working with separatists in Panama, engineered a Panamanian declaration of independence from Colombia, then sent US warships and marines to Panama.
US President Theodore Roosevelt sitting on a steam shovel at the Panama Canal, 1906
Construction work on the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal, 1907
Omar Torrijos (right) with farmers in the Panamanian countryside. The Torrijos government was well known for its policies of land redistribution.
US President Jimmy Carter shakes hands with General Omar Torrijos after signing the Panama Canal Treaties (September 7, 1977).
The aftermath of urban warfare during the US invasion of Panama, 1989
British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson swapped football shirts with the President of Panama, Juan Carlos Varela in London, May 14, 2018.
A map of Panama
La Palma, Darién
The Chagres River
Colón Harbor, 2000
Panama map of Köppen climate classification
A cooler climate is common in the Panamanian highlands.
The National Assembly of Panama
Panama's President-elect Juan Carlos Varela and Vice President Isabel Saint Malo with US Secretary of State John Kerry just before Varela's inauguration in 2014
GDP per capita development Panama since 1950
A proportional representation of Panama exports, 2019
A Panamax ship in transit through the Miraflores locks, Panama Canal
Countries with politicians, public officials or close associates implicated in the Panama Papers leak on April 15, 2016
Tocumen International Airport, Central America's largest airport
Zapatilla Island, Panama
Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980.
Population pyramid, 2016
Panama's population, 1961–2003
Panama City, Panama's capital
Plaza de la independencia, Panama City
Erika Ender
A couple dancing Panamanian Cumbia
Panamanian baseball catcher Carlos Ruiz during 2007 Spring Training

Panama (, ; Panamá ), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a transcontinental country in Central America and South America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

Hernán Cortés led the Conquest of Mexico and expanded the Spanish Empire in the Americas


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Conquistadors or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the explorer-soldiers of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires of the 15th and 16th centuries.

Conquistadors or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the explorer-soldiers of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires of the 15th and 16th centuries.

Hernán Cortés led the Conquest of Mexico and expanded the Spanish Empire in the Americas
Afonso de Albuquerque expanded the Portuguese Empire across the Indian Ocean
The surrender of Granada in 1492. The last Moorish sultan of Granada, Muhammad XII, before Ferdinand and Isabella.
Christopher Columbus and his Spanish crew making their first landfall in the Americas in 1492
Hernando de Soto and Spanish conquistadors seeing the Mississippi River for the first time.
Conquistadors praying before a battle at Tenochtitlan
Francisco Pizarro meets with the Inca emperor Atahualpa, 1532
A figure of a Moor being trampled by a conquistador's horse at the National Museum of the Viceroyalty in Tepotzotlan.
Francisco Pizarro
Hernán Cortés and his counsellor, the Indian woman La Malinche meet Moctezuma II in Tenochtitlan, 8 November 1519. Facsimile (c. 1890) of Lienzo de Tlaxcala.
Hagåtña (Agaña) is the capital of the United States territory of Guam, ancient city of the Spanish possessions in Oceania.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa and spanish conquistadors claiming the Pacific Ocean for Spain in 1513.
Diego de Almagro led the first Spanish expedition south of Peru into Chile 1535–37.
Francisco de Orellana and his men became the first to travel the entire length of the Amazon River in 1541–1542
Pedro de Alvarado
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, conquistador of the New Kingdom of Granada.
Francisco de Villagra
Francisco de Borja y Aragón
The conquistador Juan Ponce de León (Santervás de Campos, Valladolid, Spain). He was the first European to arrive at the current U.S. and led the first European expedition to Florida, which he named.
Monument to Cabeza de Vaca in Houston, Texas.
Route of Narváez expedition (until November 1528), and a reconstruction of Cabeza de Vaca's later wanderings
The Coronado expedition, 1540–1542
A map showing the de Soto route through the Southeast, 1539–1542
Nicolás de Ovando
Areas of Alaska and British Columbia Explored by Spain
Statue of Miguel López de Legazpi, Cebu City, Philippines
Spanish possessions in Asia and Oceania
Bronze figure of a Portuguese soldier made by Benin culture in West Africa around 1600
Two brass plates depicting a bearded Portuguese soldier before 1500 on top and Benin warriors at the bottom
A page (folio 67), depicting indigenous Mexican warriors in the Codex Mendoza
Vasco da Gama
1630 map of the Portuguese fort and the city of Malacca
Forte de Nossa Senhora da Conceição de Ormuz (Fort of Our Lady of the Conception), the Portuguese Castle on Hormuz Island (Iran)
Nagasaki in Japan was founded in 1570 by Portuguese explorers
Fort Jesus in Mombasa (Kenya), seen from the inside
Portuguese North America (in present-day Canada); Vaz Dourado, c.1576.
Cabral's voyage to Brazil and India, 1500
The Portuguese victory at the Second Battle of Guararapes, ended Dutch presence in Brazil.
António Raposo Tavares, a bandeirante, led in 1648–1652 the largest continental expedition made in the Americas until then, from São Paulo to the east, near the Andes (via Mato Grosso, the Paraguay River, the Grande River, the Mamoré River, and the Madeira River), and to the Amazon River and the Atlantic
Battle of Cartagena de Indias March–May 1741, during this battle the Spanish Empire defeated a British fleet of over 30,000 professional soldiers, 51 warships and 135 transport ships counting the Spanish army only less than 2400 professional soldiers, 600 natives and 6 ships.
Álvaro de Bazán, Spanish admiral famous for never having lost a battle.
The combined Spanish and Portuguese empires during the Iberian Union (1580–1640)
Aztecs dying of smallpox, ("The Florentine Codex" 1540–85)
Map of the Island of California, circa 1650; restored.
1541 founding of Santiago de Chile
Bronze equestrian statue of Francisco Pizarro in Trujillo, Spain
Philip II of Spain (1527–1598).
Alonso de Ovalle's 1646 engraving of the conquistadors García Hurtado de Mendoza, Pedro de Villagra and Rodrigo de Quiroga
Shrunken head of a mestizo man by the Jívaro indigenous people. In 1599, the Jívaro destroyed Spanish settlements in eastern Ecuador and killed all the men.
A group of 16th century conquistadors that participated in the Spanish conquest of Peru (second expedition) along with their leader, Francisco Pizarro.
Spanish conquistador in the Pavilion of Navigation in Seville, Spain.
Basque Countrymen near the France–Spain border in 1898, with characteristic horse, donkey and dogs. These were the type of animals introduced to America.
Spanish Mastiff used in expeditions and guard
Ephemeris by Abraham Zacuto in Almanach Perpetuum, 1496
A Portuguese caravel
Portolan of Angelino Dulcert (1339) showing Lanzarote island
Pre-mercator navigation chart of the Coast of Africa (1571), by Fernão Vaz Dourado (Torre do Tombo, Lisbon)
Portuguese Empire
Spanish Empire
Iberian Union (1581–1640)
The Magellan–Elcano voyage. The first travel around the world.
The Manila-Acapulco trade route started in 1568 and Spanish treasure fleets (white) and its eastwards rivals, the Portuguese India Armadas routes of 1498–1640 (blue)
Inés Suárez was a Spanish conquistadora, successfully defending Santiago against a Mapuche attack in 1541
Gonzalo Guerrero, a shipwrecked Spanish mariner who married a Maya woman and later fought with the Mayas against the conquistadors
Conquest of the Canary Islands (1402–1496)
Bandeirantes were crucial in Portuguese exploration, colonization, and pacification of the Brazilian interior.

Central Colombia, home of the Muisca was conquered by licentiate Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, and its northern regions were explored by Rodrigo de Bastidas, Alonso de Ojeda, Juan de la Cosa, Pedro de Heredia and others.

South America

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Continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

Continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

Map of South America showing physical, political, and population characteristics, as per 2018
A composite relief image of South America
Modern political map of South America
Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for South America
Map of all tropical cyclone tracks from 1945 to 2006
The prehistoric Cueva de las Manos, or "Cave of the Hands", in Argentina
The Inca estate of Machu Picchu, Peru is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World.
Woodcut depicting Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first voyage (1497-98) to the New World, from the first known published edition of Vespucci's 1504 letter to Piero Soderini.
The Inca–Spanish confrontation in the Battle of Cajamarca left thousands of natives dead.
The Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral landing in Brazil in 1500
Dutch colonial houses in Paramaribo, Suriname
A painting of the settlement of Pernambuco in colonial Brazil by Frans Post
A map of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas in 1790
Public flogging of a slave in 19th-century Brazil.
The proclamation of the Independence of Brazil by Prince Pedro on 7 September 1822
The Guayaquil conference between José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar
Coronation of Pedro I as 1st Emperor of Brazil
Bernardo O'Higgins swears officially the independence of Chile.
The Thirty-Three Orientals proclaimed the independence of Cisplatine Province.
Battle of Fanfa, battle scene in Southern Brazil during the Ragamuffin War
Imperial Brazilian Navy and army troops during the Siege of Paysandú, 1865
The Uruguayan Army at the Battle of Sauce, 1866
The Imperial Brazilian Army during a procession in Paraguay, 1868
The Chilean Army in the battlefield of the Battle of Chorrillos, 1883
A German submarine under attack by Brazilian Air Force PBY Catalina, 31 July 1943
Argentine soldiers during the Falklands War
The Brazilian Minas Geraes class kindled an Argentine–Brazilian–Chilean naval arms race.
Presidents of UNASUR member states at the Second Brasília Summit on 23 May 2008.
Headquarters of the UNASUR in Quito, Ecuador
Scheme for geographic regions and subregions used by the United Nations Statistics Division.
South American flags
Satellite view of South America at night from NASA.
Official languages in South America
Las Lajas Sanctuary, Ipiales, Colombia.
Spanish-Venezuelan protesters in Madrid.
A Japanese-Brazilian Miko during a festival in Curitiba
Former president of Brazil Lula and members of the Italian Brazilian community during the Grape Festival at Caxias do Sul
Peruvian woman and her son
Launch at the Kourou Space Centre in French Guiana
Refinery of Brazilian state-owned Petrobras in Cochabamba, Bolivia
Chuquicamata is the largest open pit mine in the world, near the city of Calama in Chile.
KC-390 is the largest military transport aircraft produced in South America by the Brazilian company Embraer.
Vineyard in Luján de Cuyo, province of Mendoza, Argentina
Sugarcane plantation in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 746 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's sugarcane.
Soy plantation in Mato Grosso. In 2020, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 130 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's soybeans.
Coffee in Minas Gerais. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 3.5 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's coffee.
Orange in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 17 million tonnes. South America produces 25% of the world's orange.
Truck of a meat company in Brazil. South America produces 20% of the world's beef and chicken meat.
EMS, the largest Brazilian pharmaceutical industry
Braskem, the largest Brazilian chemical industry
Cerro Rico, Potosi, Bolivia, still a major silver mine
Amethyst mine in Ametista do Sul. South America is a major producer of gems such as amethyst, topaz, emerald, aquamarine and tourmaline
Iron mine in Minas Gerais. Brazil is the world's second largest iron ore exporter.
Bird (UOB Plaza, Singapore), sculpture of Colombian artist Fernando Botero
“Chromovegetal Maze” by Carlos Cruz Diez, in Caracas.
Maracanã Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Panorama of the interior of the Maracanã stadium during the closing ceremony of the 2014 FIFA World Cup
Wind farm in the Paraguaná Peninsula, Venezuela
Wind power in Parnaíba.
Angra Nuclear Power Plant in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro
Pirapora Solar Complex, the largest in Brazil and Latin America with a capacity of 321 MW.
Rodovia dos Bandeirantes, Brazil
Ruta 9 / 14, in Zarate, Argentina
Rio–Niterói Bridge
Rio de Janeiro International Airport
Port of Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Stretch of the Pan-American Highway in Argentina
General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge in Venezuela
The Port of Callao in Lima
The La Paz cable car system in Bolivia is home to both the longest and highest urban cable car network in the world
Grape plantation in Argentina. Argentina and Chile are among the 10 largest grape and wine producers in the world and Brazil among the 20 largest.
Maize in Dourados. Brazil and Argentina are among the 5 largest world producers
Salmon farming in Chile. One third of all salmon sold in the world comes from the country.
Neugebauer Chocolate Factory in Arroio do Meio. South America specializes in food processing
Steel-maker CSN, in Volta Redonda. Brazil is one of the 10 largest steel producers in the world, and Argentina is one of the 30 largest
Klabin industrial complex, in Ortigueira. Brazil is the second largest pulp producer and the eighth largest paper producer in the world
Portico of the Democrata men's shoe factory, in Franca. Brazil is the fourth largest shoe manufacturer in the world.
Hering, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The country has one of the 5 largest textile industries in the world
Mercedes-Benz plant in São Paulo. Brazil is among the 10 largest vehicle manufacturers in the world and Argentina among the 30 largest.
Copper mine in Chile. Latin America produces more than half of the world's copper
Colombian emerald. The country is the largest producer of emeralds in the world, and Brazil is one of the largest producers
Copacabana Palace, the best hotel in South America, in Rio de Janeiro. Tourism brings important currencies to the continent.
Honey production in Argentina. The country is the third largest producer of honey in the world.
Sunflower plantation in Argentina. The country is the world's third largest producer of sunflower seed.
Chilean cherries. Chile is one of the top 5 producers of sweet cherries in the world.
Chilean kiwi. The country is one of the 10 largest kiwi producers in the world.
Palm plantation in Magdalena. Colombia is one of the top 5 palm oil producers in the world.
Pineapple in Brazil. The country is the 3rd largest producer in the world. South America produces close to 20% of the world's pineapple.
Oil refinery in Amuay. Venezuela is one of the largest oil producers in the world.

The continent generally includes twelve sovereign states: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela; two dependent territories: the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; and one internal territory: French Guiana.

"Cono de Arita" in the Puna de Atacama, Salta (Argentina)


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The Andes, Andes Mountains or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America.

The Andes, Andes Mountains or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America.

"Cono de Arita" in the Puna de Atacama, Salta (Argentina)
Aerial view of Valle Carbajal in the Fuegian
The Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 km wide.
Rift valley near Quilotoa, Ecuador
This photo from the ISS shows the high plains of the Andes Mountains in the foreground, with a line of young volcanoes facing the much lower Atacama Desert
Central Andes
Bolivian Andes
Laguna de Sonso tropical dry forest in Northern Andes
A male Andean cock-of-the-rock, a species found in humid Andean forests and the national bird of Peru
Herds of alpacas near Ausangate mountain
Peruvian farmers sowing maize and beans
Irrigating land in the Peruvian Andes
Chilean huasos, 19th century
The Aconcagua, Argentina, the highest mountain in the Americas
Sajama, Bolivia
Parinacota, Bolivia/Chile
View of Cuernos del Paine in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile
Nevado del Huila, Colombia
Chimborazo near Riobamba, Ecuador
Huandoy, Peru
Alpamayo, Peru
Mount Humboldt at sunset

m. The Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina.

Portrait by José Toro Moreno, 1922

Simón Bolívar

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Portrait by José Toro Moreno, 1922
Miniature portrait of Bolívar in 1800
Francisco de Miranda, portrait by Martín Tovar y Tovar
1917 engraving of Bolívar
1895 portrait of Bolívar by Arturo Michelena
Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander during the Congress of Cúcuta, October 1821
Portrait by Francis Martin Drexel, 1827
El Libertador (Bolívar diplomático), 1860
Bolívar's death, by Venezuelan painter Antonio Herrera Toro
Simón Bolívar Memorial Monument, standing in Santa Marta, Colombia, at the Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino
Statue of Bolívar in Plaza Bolívar in Caracas, Venezuela, by Adamo Tadolini
Simón Bolívar's statue in Paris, France
A monument in honor of Simón Bolívar in Sofia, Bulgaria
Statue of Simón Bolívar in Lisbon, Portugal
Statue of Simón Bolívar in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
Statue of Simón Bolívar in Bucharest, Romania
Statue of Simón Bolívar in Trinity Bellwoods Park, Toronto, Canada
Statue of Simon Bolivar in Tehran, Iran
c. 1826 equestrian portrait of Bolívar by José Hilarión Ibarra

Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios (, also , ; 24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830) was a Venezuelan military and political leader who led what are currently the countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia to independence from the Spanish Empire.

Viceroyalty of New Granada

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Viceroyalty of New Granada
Viceroyalty of New Granada
Spanish and Portuguese empires, 1790.
Viceroyalty of New Granada
Map of La Guajira in 1769
Pedro Messía de la Cerda, Viceroy of New Granada

The Viceroyalty of New Granada (Virreinato de Nueva Granada ) also called Viceroyalty of the New Kingdom of Granada or Viceroyalty of Santafé was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Venezuela.