A report on ColombiaSouth America and Panama

Map of South America showing physical, political, and population characteristics, as per 2018
Location map of the pre-Columbian cultures of Colombia
A composite relief image of South America
Embera girl dressed for a dance
Modern political map of South America
An illustration of the Battle of Cartagena de Indias, a major Spanish victory in the War of Jenkins' Ear
Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a recognized and popular figure of Panamanian history
Many intellectual leaders of the independence process participated in the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada.
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for South America
"New Caledonia", the ill-fated Scottish Darien scheme colony in the Bay of Caledonia, west of the Gulf of Darien
The Battle of Boyacá was the decisive battle that ensured success of the liberation campaign of New Granada.
Map of all tropical cyclone tracks from 1945 to 2006
Santo Domingo Church
The Socorro Province was the site of the genesis of the independence process.
The prehistoric Cueva de las Manos, or "Cave of the Hands", in Argentina
1903 political cartoon. The US government, working with separatists in Panama, engineered a Panamanian declaration of independence from Colombia, then sent US warships and marines to Panama.
Formation of the present Colombia since the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire
The Inca estate of Machu Picchu, Peru is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World.
US President Theodore Roosevelt sitting on a steam shovel at the Panama Canal, 1906
The Bogotazo in 1948
Woodcut depicting Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first voyage (1497-98) to the New World, from the first known published edition of Vespucci's 1504 letter to Piero Soderini.
Construction work on the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal, 1907
The Axis of Peace and Memory, a memorial to the victims of the Colombian conflict (1964–present)
The Inca–Spanish confrontation in the Battle of Cajamarca left thousands of natives dead.
Omar Torrijos (right) with farmers in the Panamanian countryside. The Torrijos government was well known for its policies of land redistribution.
Former President Juan Manuel Santos signed a peace accord
The Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral landing in Brazil in 1500
US President Jimmy Carter shakes hands with General Omar Torrijos after signing the Panama Canal Treaties (September 7, 1977).
Relief map
Dutch colonial houses in Paramaribo, Suriname
The aftermath of urban warfare during the US invasion of Panama, 1989
Colombia map of Köppen climate classification
A painting of the settlement of Pernambuco in colonial Brazil by Frans Post
British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson swapped football shirts with the President of Panama, Juan Carlos Varela in London, May 14, 2018.
Mountain climate is one of the unique features of the Andes and other high altitude reliefs
A map of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas in 1790
A map of Panama
The national flower of Colombia, the endemic orchid Cattleya trianae, is named for Colombian botanist and physician José Jerónimo Triana.
Public flogging of a slave in 19th-century Brazil.
La Palma, Darién
Casa de Nariño is the official home and principal workplace of the President of Colombia.
The proclamation of the Independence of Brazil by Prince Pedro on 7 September 1822
The Chagres River
Capitolio Nacional seat of the Congress.
The Guayaquil conference between José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar
Colón Harbor, 2000
The VII Summit of the Pacific Alliance: Former President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos is second from the left.
Coronation of Pedro I as 1st Emperor of Brazil
Panama map of Köppen climate classification
Arpía III of the Colombian Air Force
Bernardo O'Higgins swears officially the independence of Chile.
A cooler climate is common in the Panamanian highlands.
Colombia GDP by sector in 2017.
The Thirty-Three Orientals proclaimed the independence of Cisplatine Province.
The National Assembly of Panama
Historical GDP per capita development
Battle of Fanfa, battle scene in Southern Brazil during the Ragamuffin War
Panama's President-elect Juan Carlos Varela and Vice President Isabel Saint Malo with US Secretary of State John Kerry just before Varela's inauguration in 2014
The Colombian Stock Exchange is part of the Latin American Integrated Market (MILA).
Imperial Brazilian Navy and army troops during the Siege of Paysandú, 1865
GDP per capita development Panama since 1950
Colciencias is a Colombian Government agency that supports fundamental and applied research.
The Uruguayan Army at the Battle of Sauce, 1866
A proportional representation of Panama exports, 2019
Port of Cartagena.
The Imperial Brazilian Army during a procession in Paraguay, 1868
A Panamax ship in transit through the Miraflores locks, Panama Canal
Population density of Colombia in 2007
The Chilean Army in the battlefield of the Battle of Chorrillos, 1883
Countries with politicians, public officials or close associates implicated in the Panama Papers leak on April 15, 2016
The Las Lajas Sanctuary in the southern Colombian Department of Nariño
A German submarine under attack by Brazilian Air Force PBY Catalina, 31 July 1943
Tocumen International Airport, Central America's largest airport
The Nobel literature prize winner Gabriel García Márquez
Argentine soldiers during the Falklands War
Zapatilla Island, Panama
Vargas Swamp Lancers, artwork by Rodrigo Arenas Betancourt
The Brazilian Minas Geraes class kindled an Argentine–Brazilian–Chilean naval arms race.
Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980.
Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox, an architectural site with colonial elements
Presidents of UNASUR member states at the Second Brasília Summit on 23 May 2008.
Population pyramid, 2016
Villa de Leyva main plaza
Headquarters of the UNASUR in Quito, Ecuador
Panama's population, 1961–2003
Regions of Colombia by its traditional music.
Scheme for geographic regions and subregions used by the United Nations Statistics Division.
Panama City, Panama's capital
Colombian tiple
South American flags
Plaza de la independencia, Panama City
Teatro Colón of Bogotá houses the Ibero-American Theater Festival of Bogotá, one of the biggest theater festivals in the world.
Satellite view of South America at night from NASA.
Erika Ender
The Cartagena Film Festival is the oldest cinema event in Latin America. The central focus is on films from Ibero-America.
Official languages in South America
A couple dancing Panamanian Cumbia
Sancocho de gallina criolla is a traditional soup in Colombia.
Las Lajas Sanctuary, Ipiales, Colombia.
Panamanian baseball catcher Carlos Ruiz during 2007 Spring Training
Mariana Pajón is a Colombian cyclist, two-time Olympic gold medalist and BMX World Champion.
Spanish-Venezuelan protesters in Madrid.
Colombia leads the annual América Economía ranking of the best clinics and hospitals in Latin America.
A Japanese-Brazilian Miko during a festival in Curitiba
M5 building – National University of Colombia, designed by Pedro Nel Gómez
Former president of Brazil Lula and members of the Italian Brazilian community during the Grape Festival at Caxias do Sul
Mario Laserna Building – University of Los Andes
Peruvian woman and her son
Launch at the Kourou Space Centre in French Guiana
Refinery of Brazilian state-owned Petrobras in Cochabamba, Bolivia
Chuquicamata is the largest open pit mine in the world, near the city of Calama in Chile.
KC-390 is the largest military transport aircraft produced in South America by the Brazilian company Embraer.
Vineyard in Luján de Cuyo, province of Mendoza, Argentina
Sugarcane plantation in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 746 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's sugarcane.
Soy plantation in Mato Grosso. In 2020, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 130 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's soybeans.
Coffee in Minas Gerais. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 3.5 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's coffee.
Orange in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 17 million tonnes. South America produces 25% of the world's orange.
Truck of a meat company in Brazil. South America produces 20% of the world's beef and chicken meat.
EMS, the largest Brazilian pharmaceutical industry
Braskem, the largest Brazilian chemical industry
Cerro Rico, Potosi, Bolivia, still a major silver mine
Amethyst mine in Ametista do Sul. South America is a major producer of gems such as amethyst, topaz, emerald, aquamarine and tourmaline
Iron mine in Minas Gerais. Brazil is the world's second largest iron ore exporter.
Bird (UOB Plaza, Singapore), sculpture of Colombian artist Fernando Botero
“Chromovegetal Maze” by Carlos Cruz Diez, in Caracas.
Maracanã Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Panorama of the interior of the Maracanã stadium during the closing ceremony of the 2014 FIFA World Cup
Wind farm in the Paraguaná Peninsula, Venezuela
Wind power in Parnaíba.
Angra Nuclear Power Plant in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro
Pirapora Solar Complex, the largest in Brazil and Latin America with a capacity of 321 MW.
Rodovia dos Bandeirantes, Brazil
Ruta 9 / 14, in Zarate, Argentina
Rio–Niterói Bridge
Rio de Janeiro International Airport
Port of Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Stretch of the Pan-American Highway in Argentina
General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge in Venezuela
The Port of Callao in Lima
The La Paz cable car system in Bolivia is home to both the longest and highest urban cable car network in the world
Grape plantation in Argentina. Argentina and Chile are among the 10 largest grape and wine producers in the world and Brazil among the 20 largest.
Maize in Dourados. Brazil and Argentina are among the 5 largest world producers
Salmon farming in Chile. One third of all salmon sold in the world comes from the country.
Neugebauer Chocolate Factory in Arroio do Meio. South America specializes in food processing
Steel-maker CSN, in Volta Redonda. Brazil is one of the 10 largest steel producers in the world, and Argentina is one of the 30 largest
Klabin industrial complex, in Ortigueira. Brazil is the second largest pulp producer and the eighth largest paper producer in the world
Portico of the Democrata men's shoe factory, in Franca. Brazil is the fourth largest shoe manufacturer in the world.
Hering, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The country has one of the 5 largest textile industries in the world
Mercedes-Benz plant in São Paulo. Brazil is among the 10 largest vehicle manufacturers in the world and Argentina among the 30 largest.
Copper mine in Chile. Latin America produces more than half of the world's copper
Colombian emerald. The country is the largest producer of emeralds in the world, and Brazil is one of the largest producers
Copacabana Palace, the best hotel in South America, in Rio de Janeiro. Tourism brings important currencies to the continent.
Honey production in Argentina. The country is the third largest producer of honey in the world.
Sunflower plantation in Argentina. The country is the world's third largest producer of sunflower seed.
Chilean cherries. Chile is one of the top 5 producers of sweet cherries in the world.
Chilean kiwi. The country is one of the 10 largest kiwi producers in the world.
Palm plantation in Magdalena. Colombia is one of the top 5 palm oil producers in the world.
Pineapple in Brazil. The country is the 3rd largest producer in the world. South America produces close to 20% of the world's pineapple.
Oil refinery in Amuay. Venezuela is one of the largest oil producers in the world.

Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country in South America with an insular region in North America.

- Colombia

Panama (, ; Panamá ), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a transcontinental country in Central America and South America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

- Panama

It is bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the north, Venezuela to the east, Brazil to the southeast, Ecuador and Peru to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the west and Panama to the northwest.

- Colombia

The continent generally includes twelve sovereign states: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela; two dependent territories: the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; and one internal territory: French Guiana.

- South America

In addition, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Ascension Island (dependency of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, a British Overseas Territory), Bouvet Island (dependency of Norway), Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago may also be considered parts of South America.

- South America

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Tumaco-La Tolita mythological figure in feathered costume. Between 100 BC and 100 AD. Found in Esmeraldas
Ruins of Ingapirca, this site served as an outpost and provisioning of the Incan troops, but mainly it was a place of worship and veneration to the sun, the supreme Inca God, thus constituting a Coricancha, dedicated to the Inca ritual.
Pre-Columbian shrunken head of the Shuars (Jivaroan peoples).
Major square of Quito. Painting of 18th century. Quito Painting Colonial School.
Venezuelan independence leader Antonio José de Sucre
The "Guayaquil Conference" was the meeting between the two main Spanish South American independence leaders. In it the form of government of the nascent countries was discussed, San Martín opted for a unified South America in the form of a monarchy, while Bolívar opted for the same but into a republic. 1843 painting.
Antique dug out canoes in the courtyard of the Old Military Hospital in the Historic Center of Quito
Map of the former Gran Colombia in 1824 (named in its time as Colombia), the Gran Colombia covered all the colored region.
Ecuador in 1832
South America (1879): All land claims by Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Bolivia in 1879
Map of Ecuadorian land claims after 1916
Ecuadorian troops during the Cenepa War
The Mirage F.1JA (FAE-806) was one aircraft involved in the claimed shooting down of two Peruvian Sukhoi Su-22 on 10 February 1995.
President Lenín Moreno, first lady Rocío González Navas and his predecessor Rafael Correa, 3 April 2017
Palacio de Carondelet, the executive branch of the Ecuadorian Government
Adult Galápagos sea lion resting on a park bench in Puerto Baquerizo Moreno.
Ecuadorian President Lenín Moreno with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, 20 July 2019
Map of Ecuador
Ecuadorian Air Force (FAE)
Ecuadorian topography
A view of the Cotopaxi volcano, in Cotopaxi Province
Birds in the Yasuni National Park
Baños de Agua Santa is an important tourist site
Ecuador is one of the most megadiverse countries in the world, it also has the most biodiversity per square kilometer of any nation, and is one of the highest endemism worldwide. In the image, the spectacled bear of the Andes.
Amazon rainforest in Ecuador
A proportional representation of Ecuador exports, 2019
GDP per capita development of Ecuador
The United States dollar is the common currency circulation in Ecuador
World Trade Center headquarters in Guayaquil
EXA's first satellite, NEE-01 Pegasus
The historic center of Quito has one of the largest and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas. The city also houses a large number of museums.
The Trolebús bus rapid transit system that runs through Quito. It is the principal BRT in Ecuador.
Railways in Ecuador (interactive map)
Population pyramid in 2020
IESS Hospital in Latacunga
The oldest observatory in South America is the Quito Astronomical Observatory, founded in 1873 and located in Quito, Ecuador. The Quito Astronomical Observatory is managed by the National Polytechnic School.
Cañari children with the typical Andean indigenous clothes
Huaorani man with the typical Amazonian indigenous clothes
Juan Montalvo

Ecuador (Quechua: Ikwayur; Shuar: Ecuador or Ekuatur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Quechua: Ikwadur Ripuwlika; Shuar: Ekuatur Nunka), is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.

Following the battle, Ecuador joined Simón Bolívar's Republic of Gran Colombia, also including modern-day Colombia, Venezuela and Panama.


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The Bogotá savanna is the high plateau in the Andes where Bogotá is located. The flatlands are clearly visible in the topography and the result of a Pleistocene lake; Lake Humboldt, that existed until around 30,000 years BP
The Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, founder of the city
Iglesia de San Francisco is the oldest church standing in Bogotá, built between 1557-1566, located in La Candelaria (the city Oldest part)
Bolívar Square and the cathedral
The Plateresque Colonial Colegio Mayor de San Bartolomé, built between 1604-1622.
The Royal Street (in 1869), today known as Seventh Avenue (Carrera Séptima)
Bogotá La Sabana railway station
Bogotá is the third largest city within city limits in South America by population, after São Paulo and Lima
International Business Center, Bogotá, D.C.
Hailstorm in Bogotá
Eastern Hills
Sumapaz Páramo
Street arrangement of Bogotá based on the Cartesian coordinate system: North is to the right. (Typical maps for the city place the north on the left.)
View of Bogotá from the mountain Monserrate
Bogotá Future Population (Medium Variant)
The Centro Andino
Parque La Colina Shopping Mall
An old house in the Teusaquillo locality, near downtown Bogotá (Estrato 4)
Map of the TransMilenio system
El Dorado International Airport
Ciclovía in Bogotá
BD Bacatá, under construction, will be the city's tallest building.
Colombian National Museum
Ibero-American Theater Festival
Teatro de Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Columbus Theater)
Estadio El Campín
Monserrate Sanctuary at top of the mount
Atlantis Plaza Mall, featuring the Hard Rock Cafe
La Candelaria, the historical district of the city
Maloka Museum
Bi-articulated TransMilenio bus
Urban (SITP) bus, part of the integrated public transport system
Bikepath in central Bogotá
Traffic on the Northern Highway (Autopista Norte)
"El Claustro" at the Del Rosario University
Luis Carlos Sarmiento Building of Science and Technology at the National University of Colombia
Centro Ático at Pontifical Xavierian University
Mario Laserna Building at the University of the Andes
Liberators Building at El Bosque University
Sergio Arboleda University
Main Cloister at Saint Thomas Aquinas University
Santa Barbara business district
Victorian architecture in Teusaquillo
Torres del Parque
Santa Maria bullring
National Library of Colombia
Julio Mario Santo Domingo Public Library
Virgilio Barco Public Library
El Tintal Public Library
Church of Our Lady of Lourdes
El Lugar de Su Presencia
Bogotá Colombia Temple
Abou Bakr Al-Siddiq Mosque
Ajiaco is one of the city's most representative dishes
"Chocolate santafereño" (Santafe hot chocolate), almojábana, cheese and pandebono
Simón Bolívar Park
Journalists' park
93 Park
Santander park
El Virrey park
Santa Clara Church Museum built between 1629 and 1647. It has a large collection of colonial Colombian paintings.
Colonial Art Museum of Bogotá
Gold Museum of Bogotá
Archaeology Museum of Pasca
Botero Museum

Bogotá (, also, , ), officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santa Fe de Bogotá during the Spanish period and between 1991 and 2000, is the capital of Colombia, and one of the largest cities in the world.

Bogotá is the third-highest capital in South America and in the world after Quito and La Paz, at an average of 2640 m above sea level.

Early in the 20th century, Colombia had to face devastating consequences from the One Thousand Days War, which lasted from 1899 to 1902, and the loss of Panama.