Colombian Constitution of 1991

Constitution of 1991Colombian Constitution1991 constitutionConstitutionConstitution of ColombiaPolitical Constitution of Colombia1991 Colombian ConstitutionConstitutionalnew constitutionacción de tutela
The Constitution of Colombia (Constitución Política de Colombia), better known as the Constitution of 1991, is the current governing document of the Republic of Colombia.wikipedia
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Constitutional history of Colombia

1863 constitutionnew constitution1858 constitution
See a timeline of all previous constitutions and amendments here.
Those rights and liberties were not an integral part of the initial Colombian constitutions, but some were slowly introduced until they were definitively and explicitly included in the Constitution of 1991.

President of Colombia

PresidentColombian PresidentPresident of the Republic
Although the strict application of the National Front ended with the 1974 election, the power-sharing aspects of the system were dismantled only gradually - only in 1986 did President Virgilio Barco form a single-party Liberal government, after the Conservatives had rejected his offer of three ministries in his administration. The seventh title of the Constitution, in articles 188 through 227, establishes the executive branch, which is led by the President of Colombia and includes the Vice President and the Council of Ministers (or cabinet).
According to the Colombian Constitution of 1991, Article 188, the President of Colombia is the head of state, head of government and Supreme Administrative Authority.

Colombia

COLRepublic of ColombiaColombian
The Constitution of Colombia (Constitución Política de Colombia), better known as the Constitution of 1991, is the current governing document of the Republic of Colombia.
On 4 July 1991, a new Constitution was promulgated.

Congress of Colombia

CongressColombian CongressCongress of the Republic of Colombia
One of the factors which made constitutional change difficult was that the 1886 Constitution could only be amended by the Congress.
The composition, organization and powers of Congress and the legislative procedure are established by the fourth title of the Colombian Constitution.

Chamber of Representatives of Colombia

Chamber of RepresentativesHouse of RepresentativesRepresentative
The name séptima papeleta meant to indicate that the unofficial ballot for a constituent assembly would be in addition to the six other official ballot papers (senators, representatives, departmental assemblies, mayors, municipal councils and the Liberal presidential primary).
According to the Colombian Constitution, the House of Representatives, currently composed of 166 representatives serving four-year terms, is elected in territorial constituencies, special constituencies and an international constituency.

Senate of Colombia

Senator of ColombiaSenateSenator
The name séptima papeleta meant to indicate that the unofficial ballot for a constituent assembly would be in addition to the six other official ballot papers (senators, representatives, departmental assemblies, mayors, municipal councils and the Liberal presidential primary).
According to the Colombian Constitution, 100 senators (senadores) are elected from a single national constituency.

Constituent Assembly of Colombia

National Constituent AssemblyConstituent Assembly1991 Constituent Assembly
Elections to the Constitutional Assembly were held on December 9, simultaneously with the referendum authorizing the convening of said assembly for February 5, 1991.
The Constituent Assembly of Colombia (Asamblea Nacional Constituyente de Colombia) was formed on February 5, 1991, to draft the Colombian Constitution of 1991.

César Gaviria

César Gaviria TrujilloCesar GaviriaCesar Gaviria Trujillo
Liberal presidential candidate César Gaviria supported the idea and was the first presidential contender to speak about it publicly.
During his tenure as president, he summoned the Constituent Assembly of Colombia that enacted the Constitution of 1991.

Judiciary of Colombia

Judicial Branch of ColombiaJudicial BranchJudiciary
The list of topics on the agenda included reforms to Congress, the legislative process, the judiciary, public prosecutions, public administration, human rights, local government, the status of political parties, popular participation, the state of siege and economic matters.
The Colombian Constitutional court is in charge of guarding the Colombian Constitution.

Pablo Escobar

Pablo Escobar GaviriaPablo Emilio Escobar GaviriaDon Pablo Escobar
The conflict now involved new guerrilla movements, paramilitary groups and violent drug cartels (most famously the Medellín Cartel of Pablo Escobar).
Before he gave himself up, the extradition of Colombian citizens to the United States had been prohibited by the newly approved Colombian Constitution of 1991.

Álvaro Gómez Hurtado

Alvaro Gómez Hurtado
Álvaro Gómez Hurtado, leader of the conservative National Salvation Movement (MSN), initially opposed constitutional reform.
He is mostly remembered for being one of the writers of the Colombian Constitution of 1991 and for running three times for the presidency, but without success.

1990 Colombian presidential election

presidential elections1990Colombian presidential election
On May 3, 1990, President Barco issued Decree 927, ordering the electoral authorities to count the votes for an official (but non-binding) vote convening a constitutional assembly, to be held alongside the May 27 presidential election.
The 1990 presidential election was the last to use a simple majority before the 1991 Constitution implemented a two-round, absolute majority system.

Indigenous peoples in Colombia

Indigenous groupsindigenousindigenous people
Only citizens who had held high political office, had been university professors for at least three years or had worked in a field with a university degree for at least five years were eligible for election, although the decree created exceptions for those who had been undergraduate students for at least one year, indigenous leaders for at least one year, social leaders for at least one year or those who had received a pardon as part of a peace process.
The struggle of the indigenous people on these lands to protect their holdings from neighboring landlords and to preserve their traditions continued into the late 20th century, when the 1991 constitution incorporated many of the Amerindian demands.

Council of State (Colombia)

Council of StateCouncil of State of ColombiaColombian Council of State
The process was suddenly halted by the Council of State's ruling on April 4, 1988, which declared it to be unconstitutional.
Anyone may request the Council of State to rule on whether a given administrative action complies with the law and the Constitution.

Antonio Navarro Wolff

Antonio NavarroAntonio Navarro Wolf
The single most popular list was that of the AD M-19, led by Antonio Navarro Wolff, which won 992,613 votes and 19 seats.
In 1991 he was elected to the National Constituent Assembly, of which became Co-President along with Álvaro Gómez Hurtado and Horacio Serpa Uribe; it was this Assembly that drafted the Colombian Constitution of 1991 which remains the supreme law of the country.

Race and ethnicity in Colombia

Mixed Groupethnicethnically
Article 7 recognizes and protects the ethnic and cultural diversity of Colombia, while the following article obliges the State and individuals to protect the cultural and natural assets of the country.
A 1999 resolution of the Ministry of the Interior and Justice acknowledged the Romani population as a Colombian ethnic group, although Romani people were not recognized in the 1991 constitution (unlike the Afro-Colombian and indigenous populations).

Horacio Serpa

Horacio Serpa Uribe
The most successful of the various Liberal lists was led by Horacio Serpa and won 138,662 and 3 seats.
Serpa was later elected for the National Constituent Assembly in 1991 in which he shared a collegiate presidency with Antonio Navarro Wolff (former member of the M-19 guerrilla) and Álvaro Gómez Hurtado (representative of the Conservative Party) to create the Colombian Constitution of 1991.

Constitutional Court of Colombia

Constitutional CourtColombiaConstitutional Chamber
In sentence T-406/92, the Constitutional Court noted that the concept of the estado social de derecho encompassed not only individual rights but also the entire organizational apparatus of the State.
The court was first established by the Constitution of 1991, and its first session began in March 1992.

Abortion in Colombia

abortionColombia's abortion law
The majority opinion of the court contended the 1991 Constitution, which recognizes life as a fundamental right (in article 11) and cites it as one of the founding principles in the constitutional preamble and article 2, recognized the "primacy and inviolability of life", excluding any possibility for abortion and allowing the legislator to penalize such acts.

Recall election

recallrecalledrecall referendum
The constitutional replacement was launched as an answer to the movement known as la séptima papeleta (the seventh ballot), which requested a constitutional reform to end violence, narcoterrorism, corruption and increasing citizenship apathy.

Colombian Constitution of 1886

Constitution of 1886the constitutionLegislative Act No. 3
Promulgated on July 4, 1991, it replaced the Constitution of 1886.

Colombian culture

Culture of ColombiaColombiancultural
Article 7 recognizes and protects the ethnic and cultural diversity of Colombia, while the following article obliges the State and individuals to protect the cultural and natural assets of the country.
The Constitution of 1991 gave a wider opportunity for women, and today, the majority of families (regardless of economic class) have two working parents due to the need of an income to sustain a family.

1990 Colombian parliamentary election

general electionsMarch 1990 parliamentary electionsMarch 1990 legislative election
Some months later, the students promoted the so-called séptima papeleta, or 'seventh ballot paper', as an unofficial plebiscite for a constituent assembly to be held alongside the March 1990 legislative election.
The Assembly was elected in December 1990, and produced the 1991 constitution.

Vice President of Colombia

Vice PresidentVice President of the Republic of ColombiaVice presidency
The seventh title of the Constitution, in articles 188 through 227, establishes the executive branch, which is led by the President of Colombia and includes the Vice President and the Council of Ministers (or cabinet).
The Vice President of Colombia is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of Colombia upon leave of absence or death, resignation, or removal of the president, as designated by the Colombian Constitution of 1991 which also reinstated the vice president figure after almost a century of being abolished during the presidency of Rafael Núñez.

Supreme Court of Justice of Colombia

Supreme Court of ColombiaSupreme CourtSupreme Court of Justice
Notwithstanding these legal difficulties, several presidents beginning attempted to reform parts of the constitution, but most saw their efforts rebuffed by the Supreme Court of Justice or political complications.