Colonies in antiquity

colonyGreek colonycoloniesRoman coloniesGreek coloniesRoman colonyGreek colonizationcolonistsancient Greek colonistsancient Greek colony
Colonies in antiquity were post-Iron Age city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.wikipedia
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Colony

coloniescolonialcolonized
Bonds between a colony and its metropolis remained often close, and took specific forms during the period of classical antiquity.
For colonies in antiquity, city-states would often found their own colonies.

Ancient Greece

Greekancient Greekancient Greeks
Generally, colonies founded by the ancient Phoenicians, Carthage, Rome, Alexander the Great and his successors remained tied to their metropolis, but Greek colonies of the Archaic and Classical eras were sovereign and self-governing from their inception.
Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin.

Ancient Rome

RomanRomansRome
Generally, colonies founded by the ancient Phoenicians, Carthage, Rome, Alexander the Great and his successors remained tied to their metropolis, but Greek colonies of the Archaic and Classical eras were sovereign and self-governing from their inception.
The Romans secured their conquests by founding Roman colonies in strategic areas, thereby establishing stable control over the region of Italy they had conquered.

Metropolis

metropolitanMetropolitan CityMetro
But in most cases colony-founders aimed to establish and facilitate relations of trade with foreign countries and to further the wealth of the mother-city (in μητρόπολις mētropolis).
The term is Ancient Greek and means the "mother city" of a colony (in the ancient sense), that is, the city which sent out settlers.

Ancient Egypt

EgyptEgyptianAncient Egyptian
An Egyptian colony that was stationed in southern Canaan dates to slightly before the First Dynasty.
Greek influence expanded greatly as the city-state of Naukratis became the home of Greeks in the Nile Delta.

Cádiz

CadizCadiz, SpainGades
They had trading contacts in Egypt and Greece, and established colonies as far west as modern Spain, at Gadir (modern Cádiz).
It was the principal city of the Roman colony of Augusta Urbs Julia Gaditana.

Marseille

MarseillesMarseille, FranceMassilia
734 BC), Massalia (the later Marseille, France, c. 598 BC) and Agathe (shortly after Massalia) by Phokaia, Elea (Italy) and Emporion (present-day Spain) by Phokaia/Massalia (c.
Marseille was originally founded circa 600 BC as the Greek colony of Massalia and populated by settlers from Phocaea (modern Foça, Turkey).

Al-Mina

Al Mina
The Greek city-states began establishing colonies around 900 – 800 BC, at first at Al Mina on the coast of Syria and the Greek emporium Pithekoussai at Ischia in the Bay of Naples, both established about 800 BC by Euboeans.
The site was excavated in 1936 by Leonard Woolley, who considered it to be an early Greek trading colony, founded a little before 800 BC, in direct competition with the Phoenicians to the south.

Antibes

Cap d'AntibesAntibes, FranceAntipolis
540 BC and early 6th century), Antipolis (nowadays France) by Achaea, Alalia (Corsica) by Phokaia/Massalia (c.
As a Greek colony (and later Roman) settlement, it was named Antipolis (Greek: Ἀντίπολις, Antípolis, lit. "Cross-City") from its position close to Nice ( anc.

Iberian Peninsula

IberiaIberianPeninsula
They became dotted across the Mediterranean world, with the most active colony-founding city, Miletus, of the Ionian League, spawning ninety colonies stretching throughout the Mediterranean Sea, from the shores of the Black Sea and Anatolia (modern Turkey) in the east, to the southern coast of the Iberian Peninsula in the west, as well as several colonies on the Libyan coast of northern Africa, from the late 9th to the 5th centuries BC.
In the 8th century BC, the first Greek colonies, such as Emporion (modern Empúries), were founded along the Mediterranean coast on the east, leaving the south coast to the Phoenicians.

Cyrene, Libya

CyreneCyrenaeanArchaeological Site of Cyrene
545 BC) and Cyrene (Cyrenaica, present-day Libya) by Thera (762/61 and 632/31 BC).
After two years of settling the colony, they had little success and went back to the Pythia to get advice.

Agde

Agde, FranceAgathele Grau d'Agde
734 BC), Massalia (the later Marseille, France, c. 598 BC) and Agathe (shortly after Massalia) by Phokaia, Elea (Italy) and Emporion (present-day Spain) by Phokaia/Massalia (c.
Agde (Agathe Tyche, "good fortune") was a 5th-century B.C. Greek colony settled by Phocaeans from Massilia.

Greece

GreekHellenic RepublicGreeks
They had trading contacts in Egypt and Greece, and established colonies as far west as modern Spain, at Gadir (modern Cádiz).
The architecture of ancient Greece was produced by the ancient Greeks (Hellenes), whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland, the Aegean Islands and their colonies, for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC.

Trabzon

TrebizondTrapezusTrabzon, Turkey
The cities of Sinope (Greek: Σινώπη, Sinōpē) and Trabzon (Greek: Τραπεζοῦς Trapezous), were founded by Milesian traders (756 BC) as well as Samsun, Rize and Amasya.
It was one of a number (about ten) of Milesian emporia or trading colonies along the shores of the Black Sea.

Cleruchy

cleruchiescleruchscleruch
The cleruchs (κληροῦχοι, klêrouchoi) formed a special class of Greek colonists, each being assigned an individual plot of land (κλῆρος, klêros) in the place to which they had been assigned.
A cleruchy (κληρουχία, klēroukhia) in Classical Greece, was a specialized type of colony established by Athens.

Pontic Greeks

Pontic GreekPonticGreeks
Those from southern Russia, the Ukraine, and Crimea are often referred to as 'Northern Pontic Greeks', in contrast to those from 'South Pontus', which strictly speaking is Pontus proper.
The first recorded Greek colony, established on the northern shores of ancient Anatolia, was Sinope on the Black Sea, circa 800 BC.

Macedonia (ancient kingdom)

MacedonMacedoniaancient Macedonia
After the conquests of the Macedonian Kingdom and Alexander the Great, a further number of Hellenistic colonies were founded also in Asia (as far away as India), Europe and Africa.
Pyrrhus returned to Epirus in 275BC after the ultimate failure of both campaigns, which contributed to the rise of Rome because Greek cities in southern Italy such as Tarentum now became Roman allies.

Hellenistic period

HellenisticHellenistic eraHellenistic Age
After the conquests of the Macedonian Kingdom and Alexander the Great, a further number of Hellenistic colonies were founded also in Asia (as far away as India), Europe and Africa. While Greek colonies were often founded to solve social unrest in the mother-city, by expelling a part of the population, Hellenistic, Roman, Carthaginian, and Han Chinese colonies were used for expansion and empire-building.
The spread of Greek culture and language throughout the Near East and Asia owed much to the development of newly founded cities and deliberate colonization policies by the successor states, which in turn was necessary for maintaining their military forces.

Greeks in pre-Roman Crimea

foundedGreek coloniesGreeks
The Greeks also colonised modern-day Crimea in the Black Sea.

Greeks

GreekHellenesGreek people
The Mycenaeans Greeks by the 15th century BC had reached Rhodes, Crete, Cyprus, where Teucer is said to have founded the first colony, and the shores of Asia Minor.
E-V13 is also found in Corsicans and Provencals, where an admixture analysis estimated that 17% of the Y-chromosomes of Provence may be attributed to Greek colonization, and is also found at low frequencies on the Anatolian mainland.

Latin Rights

Latin RightIus Latiiius Latinum
The members of the coloniae Latinae served among the socii, the allies, and possessed the so-called ius Latinum or Latinitas.
The ius Latii was given to some Roman colonies which were founded around Italy in the fourth and third centuries BC to strengthen Roman control, as Rome expanded its hegemony over the peninsula.

Iron Age

Early Iron AgeIronLate Iron Age
Colonies in antiquity were post-Iron Age city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.

City

citiesUrbanCivil (City)
Colonies in antiquity were post-Iron Age city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.