Colony of British Columbia (1858–1866)

Colony of British ColumbiaBritish ColumbiaColony of British Columbia (1858–66)Mainland ColonyCrown Colony of British ColumbiaBritish ColonyBritish Columbia (1858)British Columbia Colonycolonial governmentBritish Colony of British Columbia
The Colony of British Columbia was a crown colony in British North America from 1858 until 1866.wikipedia
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British Columbia

BCBritish Columbia, CanadaB.C.
At its creation, it physically constituted approximately half the present day Canadian province of British Columbia, since it did not include the Colony of Vancouver Island, the vast and still largely uninhabited regions north of the Nass and Finlay Rivers, the regions east of the Rocky Mountains, or any of the coastal islands.
Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia (1858–1866) was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.

Colony of British Columbia (1866–1871)

Colony of British ColumbiaUnited Colonies of Vancouver Island and British ColumbiaBritish Columbia
The Colony of the Queen Charlotte Islands and the Stikine Territory were merged with it in 1863, and it was amalgamated in 1866 with the Colony of Vancouver Island to form a new Colony of British Columbia.
The Colony of British Columbia was a British Crown Colony that resulted from the amalgamation of the two former colonies, the Colony of Vancouver Island and the mainland Colony of British Columbia.

Stickeen Territories

Stikine TerritoryStickeenStickeen (Stikine) Territory
The Colony of the Queen Charlotte Islands and the Stikine Territory were merged with it in 1863, and it was amalgamated in 1866 with the Colony of Vancouver Island to form a new Colony of British Columbia.
The new territory, named after the Stikine River, was under the responsibility of the Governor of the Colony of British Columbia, James Douglas, who was appointed "Administrator of the Stickeen Territories" and under British law, within the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of British Columbia.

Mainland

mainland Chinaparent territoryUK mainland
However, until 1858, the region which now comprises the mainland of the Province of British Columbia was an unorganised area of British North America comprising two fur trading districts: New Caledonia, north of the Thompson River drainage; and the Columbia District, located south of the Thompson and throughout the basin of the Columbia River.

Colony of the Queen Charlotte Islands

The Colony of the Queen Charlotte Islands and the Stikine Territory were merged with it in 1863, and it was amalgamated in 1866 with the Colony of Vancouver Island to form a new Colony of British Columbia.
The Colony of the Queen Charlotte Islands was a British colony constituting the archipelago of the same name (which in 2010 was renamed Haida Gwaii) from 1853 to July 1863, when it was amalgamated into the Colony of British Columbia.

Fraser Canyon Gold Rush

Fraser Gold RushFraser River Gold RushFraser Canyon
Almost overnight, some ten to twenty thousand men moved into the region around present-day Yale, British Columbia, sparking the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
It was the catalyst for the founding of the Colony of British Columbia, the building of early road infrastructure, and the founding of many towns.

Colony of Vancouver Island

Vancouver IslandColonies of Vancouver IslandVancouver Island (1849)
At its creation, it physically constituted approximately half the present day Canadian province of British Columbia, since it did not include the Colony of Vancouver Island, the vast and still largely uninhabited regions north of the Nass and Finlay Rivers, the regions east of the Rocky Mountains, or any of the coastal islands.
To exert its legal authority, and undercut any HBC claims to the resource wealth of the mainland, the district was converted to a Crown colony on 2 August 1858, and given the name British Columbia.

Royal Engineers

Corps of Royal EngineersRoyal EngineerRE
The rush indeed was short lived, and the exodus of miners, speculators, and merchants was already underway by the time the Royal Engineers had laid out the colony's new capital at New Westminster.
The Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, commanded by Richard Clement Moody, was responsible for the foundation and settlement of British Columbia as the Colony of British Columbia.

Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment

Royal EngineersColumbia DetachmentColumbia Detachment of the Royal Engineers
Lytton desired to send to the colony "representatives of the best of British culture, not just a police force": he sought men who possessed "courtesy, high breeding and urbane knowledge of the world" and he decided to send Moody, whom the Government considered to be the archetypal "English gentleman and British Officer" at the head of the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, which was created by an Act of the British Parliament on 2 August 1858.
The Columbia Detachment of the Royal Engineers was a contingent of the Royal Engineers of the British Army that was responsible for the foundation of British Columbia as the Colony of British Columbia (1858–66).

Hope, British Columbia

HopeFort HopeDistrict of Hope
Magistrates and constables were hired, mining regulations drawn up, and town sites surveyed at Yale, Hope and Fort Langley to discourage squatting on crown land.
Hope became part of the Colony of British Columbia when the new British colony was created on 2 August 1858.

Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia

Lieutenant-Governor of British ColumbiaLieutenant GovernorLieutenant-Governor
He was sworn in as the first Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia and appointed Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for British Columbia.
The office was created in 1871 when the Colony of British Columbia joined the Confederation.

Finlay River

FinlayFinleyPeace River
At its creation, it physically constituted approximately half the present day Canadian province of British Columbia, since it did not include the Colony of Vancouver Island, the vast and still largely uninhabited regions north of the Nass and Finlay Rivers, the regions east of the Rocky Mountains, or any of the coastal islands.
The river was the eastern half of the northern boundary of the Colony of British Columbia at the time of its creation in 1858, north of which was the North-Western Territory; the western half of the boundary was the Nass River and from 1862 to 1863 it was briefly the southern boundary of the Stickeen Territories (Stikine Territory) which had been formed from the North-Western Territory in response to the Peace and Stikine Gold Rushes and which was amalgamated with the Colony of British Columbia in the following year.

Matthew Baillie Begbie

Judge BegbieBegbieChief Justice Begbie
This led to an incident popularly known as "Ned McGowan's War", where Moody led 22 Engineers and Judge Matthew Baillie Begbie to Yale to face down a group of rebellious American miners.
In 1858, Begbie became the first Chief Justice of the Crown Colony of British Columbia in colonial times and in the first decades after British Columbia joined Confederation as a province of Canada.

Yale, British Columbia

YaleFort YaleYale Town 1
Almost overnight, some ten to twenty thousand men moved into the region around present-day Yale, British Columbia, sparking the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. This led to an incident popularly known as "Ned McGowan's War", where Moody led 22 Engineers and Judge Matthew Baillie Begbie to Yale to face down a group of rebellious American miners.
The unrest threatened the rule of the Crown over the Mainland (or "New Caledonia" as it was called before the creation of the mainland colony.

Arthur Reid Lempriere

Arthur Lempriere
The contingent included two subalterns, Lieutenant Arthur Lempriere (later a Major-General) and Lieutenant Henry Palmer, a surgeon, Dr John Vernon Seddall, Captain William Driscoll Gosset, a retired Royal Engineer, who served as civilian treasurer and commissary officer, Rev. John Sheepshanks served as the detachment's chaplain, and Burnaby.
He was in the third and largest group of Engineers to arrive in the Colony of British Columbia in 1859 and served as a lieutenant subaltern in the Columbia Detachment of the RE's there until 1863.

Oregon Treaty

Oregon Treaty of 1846Treaty of WashingtonTreaty of Oregon
With the signing of the Treaty of Washington in 1846, which established the US border along the 49th parallel, the HBC moved the headquarters of its western operations from Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River (present day Vancouver, Washington) to the newly established Fort Victoria, on the southern tip of Vancouver Island.
The British portion remained unorganized until 1858, when the Colony of British Columbia was declared as a result of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush and fears of the re-asserted American expansionist intentions.

Crown colony

British colonyBritish coloniesBritish Crown Colony
The Colony of British Columbia was a crown colony in British North America from 1858 until 1866.

Cariboo Road

Cariboo Wagon RoadOld Cariboo Roada route better
Moody and the Royal Engineers also built an extensive road network, including what would become Kingsway, connecting New Westminster to False Creek, the North Road between Port Moody and New Westminster, and the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park. By 1862, the Cariboo Gold Rush, attracting an additional 5000 miners, was underway, and Douglas hastened construction of the Great North Road (commonly known now as the Cariboo Wagon Road) up the Fraser Canyon to the prospecting region around Barkerville.
The Cariboo Road (also called the Cariboo Wagon Road, the Great North Road or the Queen's Highway) was a project initiated in 1860 by the Governor of the Colony of British Columbia, James Douglas.

Cariboo Gold Rush

Cariboo goldfieldsCaribooCariboo gold fields
By 1862, the Cariboo Gold Rush, attracting an additional 5000 miners, was underway, and Douglas hastened construction of the Great North Road (commonly known now as the Cariboo Wagon Road) up the Fraser Canyon to the prospecting region around Barkerville.
The Cariboo Gold Rush was a gold rush in the Colony of British Columbia, which earlier joined the Canadian province of British Columbia.

Port Moody

Port Moody, British ColumbiaPort Moody, BC
Moody and the Royal Engineers also built an extensive road network, including what would become Kingsway, connecting New Westminster to False Creek, the North Road between Port Moody and New Westminster, and the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park.
It is named for Richard Clement Moody, the first Lieutenant-Governor of the Colony of British Columbia.

Edward Bulwer-Lytton

Edward Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron LyttonLord LyttonBulwer-Lytton
Douglas was offered the governorship of the new colony by the colonial secretary, Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, on condition that he sever his relationship with the HBC.
Moody was charged to establish British order and transform the newly established Colony of British Columbia (1858–66) into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west" and "found a second England on the shores of the Pacific."

Nootka Convention

Nootka Sound ConventionNootka Conventionsconcessions
The explorations of James Cook and George Vancouver, and the concessions of Spain in 1794 established British claims over the coastal area north of California.
The Hudson's Bay Company, the remaining British presence in the region, was averse to settlement and any economic activity other than its own, such that settlement and resource development did not take place to any degree until the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush of 1858, which formalized British claims on the mainland still residual from the Nootka Conventions into the Colony of British Columbia.

John Robson (politician)

John RobsonRobson
With this increased stability, objections to the colony's absentee governor and the lack of responsible government began to be vocalised, led by the influential editor of the New Westminster British Columbian and future Premier, John Robson.
In 1859, upon news of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, Robson moved west to the then Colony of British Columbia from Upper Canada.

New Caledonia (Canada)

New CaledoniaNew Caledonia DistrictNew Caledonia fur district
However, until 1858, the region which now comprises the mainland of the Province of British Columbia was an unorganised area of British North America comprising two fur trading districts: New Caledonia, north of the Thompson River drainage; and the Columbia District, located south of the Thompson and throughout the basin of the Columbia River.
The name given the new entity was the Colony of British Columbia, and a new capital, New Westminster was established on the southern reaches of the Fraser River.

Frederick Seymour

Governor SeymourGovernor Frederick Seymour
Douglas's successor was Frederick Seymour, who came to the colony with twenty years of colonial experience in Van Diemen's Land, the British West Indies, and British Honduras.
From 1864 to 1866, he served as the second Governor of the Colony of British Columbia, succeeding Sir James Douglas.