The Colorado Territory as drawn in 1860 from the Utah, Nebraska, Kansas, and New Mexico Territories. Colorado appears to have a rectangular border at this scale, but there are in fact some slight deviations from a straight line along its southern border.
The Colorado Territory as drawn in 1860 from the Utah, Nebraska, Kansas, and New Mexico Territories. Colorado appears to have a rectangular border at this scale, but there are in fact some slight deviations from a straight line along its southern border.
A delegation of Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Arapaho Chiefs in Denver, Colorado on September 28, 1864
Edmund Guerrier provided testimony to Congressional investigators at Fort Riley, Kansas in 1865 concerning the Sand Creek Massacre.
Chivington in his later years, by Edgar H. Rood

Colonel Chivington gained infamy for leading the 700-man force of Colorado Territory militia responsible for one of the most heinous war crimes in American military history: the November 1864 Sand Creek massacre.

- John Chivington

The Coloradans, under the command of Union Army General Edward Canby and Colonel John P. Slough, Lt. Col. Samuel F. Tappan and Major John M. Chivington, defeated Sibley's force at the two day Battle of Glorieta Pass along the Santa Fe Trail, thwarting the Confederate strategy.

- Colorado Territory
The Colorado Territory as drawn in 1860 from the Utah, Nebraska, Kansas, and New Mexico Territories. Colorado appears to have a rectangular border at this scale, but there are in fact some slight deviations from a straight line along its southern border.

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The Battle of Glorieta Pass, Roy Andersen

Battle of Glorieta Pass

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The decisive battle of the New Mexico campaign during the American Civil War.

The decisive battle of the New Mexico campaign during the American Civil War.

The Battle of Glorieta Pass, Roy Andersen
Action at Apache Canyon
Glorieta Pass battlefield. This photograph was taken in 1990 from Sharpshooter's Ridge, just north of Pigeon's Ranch. It was the location of the Union right flank during the last day's battle.
Battle of Glorieta Pass marker at the Cuerno Verde Rest Area, Colorado
The battlefield in 2012
Battle of Glorieta Pass: actions on March 28
Confederate
Union

The strategic goals were to gain access to the gold and silver mines of California and the Colorado Territory and the seaports in Southern California, and thus evade the Union naval blockade.

The Union forces were led by Col. John P. Slough of the 1st Colorado Infantry, with units under the command of Maj. John M. Chivington.

John Potts Slough

John P. Slough

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American politician, lawyer, Union general during the American Civil War, and Chief Justice of New Mexico.

American politician, lawyer, Union general during the American Civil War, and Chief Justice of New Mexico.

John Potts Slough

With the establishment of the new Colorado Territory in early 1861, he helped organize the courts system, establishment of the bar, and review of professional peers.

The Texans were pushing the Coloradans back, but the battle was turned to a victory for the Union after Slough sent Major John M. Chivington on a flank attack, which destroyed the Confederate's supply train.

A delegation of Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Arapaho chiefs at Denver, Colorado on September 28, 1864. Black Kettle is second from left in the front row.

Colorado War

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A delegation of Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Arapaho chiefs at Denver, Colorado on September 28, 1864. Black Kettle is second from left in the front row.
A map of the Colorado War
Indian land as defined by the Treaty of Fort Laramie
Painting of a Cheyenne scout
The Camp Weld Conference, September 28, 1864, with the Cheyenne and Arapaho. Major Wynkoop is kneeling left. Black Kettle is third from the left in the middle row.
Colonel John M. Chivington
Spotted Tail, the Brulé Sioux leader
Edmond Guerrier was the son of Frenchman William Guerrier and Walks In Sight, a Cheyenne. A survivor of the Sand Creek massacre, Guerrier testified to Congressional investigators at Fort Riley, Kansas in 1865 about the massacre.
Mixed blood Cheyenne warrior George Bent and his wife, Magpie. Bent was a survivor of the Sand Creek massacre.
Painting of a Cheyenne scout

The Colorado War was an Indian War fought in 1864 and 1865 between the Southern Cheyenne, Arapaho, and allied Brulé and Oglala Sioux (or Lakota) peoples versus the U.S. army, Colorado militia, and white settlers in Colorado Territory and adjacent regions.

The massacre resulted in military and congressional hearings which established the culpability of John M. Chivington, the commander of the Colorado Volunteers, and his troops.

John Evans (Colorado governor)

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Attica, Indiana, where Evans developed a successful medical practice, strategized about opening an asylum, and where his children were born.
Evans was a founder of Lakeside Hospital, now called Mercy Hospital
Railroad tracks
Denver, 1859. During its early history, Cherokee and Arapaho often camped in the area.
Cheyenne and Arapaho Delegation, Camp Weld, September 28, 1864
Black Kettle at Sand Creek, Buffalo Bill Center of the West
John Evans House, Denver, about 1870s. When the Evans first came to Denver, settlers established themselves in tents and simple low-roofed cabins. Then, they constructed simple frame houses. A house of brick was a rarity in Denver's early years.
Evans Memorial Chapel built by John Evans after the death of his daughter, Josephine Evans Elbert. It is located on the University of Denver campus
John Evans' grave marker in Denver's Riverside Cemetery

John Evans (March 9, 1814 – July 2, 1897) was an American politician, physician, founder of various hospitals and medical associations, railroad promoter, governor of the territory of Colorado, and namesake of Evanston, Illinois; Evans, Colorado; and Mount Evans, Colorado.

That year, Governor Evans appointed John Chivington as Colonel of the Colorado Volunteers.