Colorado Territory

The Colorado Territory as drawn in 1860 from the Utah, Nebraska, Kansas, and New Mexico Territories. Colorado appears to have a rectangular border at this scale, but there are in fact some slight deviations from a straight line along its southern border.
The Colorado Territory as drawn in 1860 from the Utah, Nebraska, Kansas, and New Mexico Territories. Colorado appears to have a rectangular border at this scale, but there are in fact some slight deviations from a straight line along its southern border.

Organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from February 28, 1861, until August 1, 1876, when it was admitted to the Union as the State of Colorado.

- Colorado Territory
The Colorado Territory as drawn in 1860 from the Utah, Nebraska, Kansas, and New Mexico Territories. Colorado appears to have a rectangular border at this scale, but there are in fact some slight deviations from a straight line along its southern border.

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Colorado

State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

Ruins of Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde National Park. Photo by Gustaf Nordenskiöld, 1891
Great Kiva at Chimney Rock in the San Juan Mountains of Southwestern Colorado. It is said to have been built by the Ancient Pueblo peoples.
The Spanish discovering the Colorado River, namesake of the state, in 1540, by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau. García López de Cárdenas can be seen overlooking the Grand Canyon.
Map of the Mexican Cession, with the white representing the territory the United States received from Mexico (plus land ceded to the Republic of Texas) after the Mexican–American War. Well over half of Colorado was received during this treaty.
The Anasazi Heritage Center in Dolores
The territories of New Mexico, Utah, Kansas, and Nebraska before the creation of the Territory of Colorado
Mount of the Holy Cross, photographed by William Henry Jackson in 1874
The Georgetown Loop of the Colorado Central Railroad as photographed by William Henry Jackson in 1899
Three 10th Mountain Division skitroopers above Camp Hale in February 1944.
The arid high plains in Southeastern Colorado
Front Range Peaks west of Denver
Tenmile Range and Dillon Reservoir near Breckenridge
Grays Peak at 4352 m is the highest point on the Continental Divide in North America
The high desert lands that make up the San Luis Valley in Southern Colorado
Maroon Bells, at 14163 ft, is part of White River National Forest and a tourist destination
The Colorado National Monument near Grand Junction is made up of high desert canyons and sandstone rock formations
Köppen climate types of Colorado, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Breckenridge naturalist Edwin Carter with a mounted gray wolf killed in the Colorado Rockies, ca. 1890–1900.
An enlargeable map of the 64 counties of the State of Colorado
An enlargeable map of the 17 core-based statistical areas of Colorado
Colorado population density map
Denver Energy Center lies in the Denver financial district along 17th Street, known as the Wall Street of the West
Corn growing in Larimer County
An oil well in western Colorado
History Colorado Center in Denver
Street art in Denver
The Colorado Rockies baseball club at Coors Field
Empower Field at Mile High in Denver, home field of the Denver Broncos and the Denver Outlaws
Ball Arena, home of the Denver Nuggets, the Colorado Avalanche, and the Colorado Mammoth
Dick's Sporting Goods Park, home of the Colorado Rapids
A Colorado state welcome sign
The main terminal of Denver International Airport evokes the peaks of the Front Range.
The westbound and eastbound California Zephyrs meet in the Glenwood Canyon.
Colorado Christian University
Colorado College
Colorado Mesa University
Colorado School of Mines
Colorado State University
Regis University
The United States Air Force Academy
The University of Colorado Boulder
The University of Denver
Fort Carson
Peterson Space Force Base
United States Air Force Academy
The Southern Ute Tribal Administration Building
The Ute Mountain Ute Tribal Office Complex
Lowry Pueblo in Canyons of the Ancients National Monument
Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve
Spruce Tree House in Mesa Verde National Park

The Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, and on August 1, 1876, U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state.

Denver

Consolidated city and county, the capital, and most populous city of the U.S. state of Colorado.

Consolidated city and county, the capital, and most populous city of the U.S. state of Colorado.

Indian land as defined by the 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie. As per this treaty, the area of modern Denver falls within traditional territory of Cheyenne and Arapaho nations
Former Kansas Territorial Governor James W. Denver visited his namesake city in 1875 and in 1882.
The "Bronco Buster", a variation of Frederic Remington's "Bronco Buster" western sculpture at the Denver capitol grounds, a gift from J.K. Mullen in 1920
"Pioneer Mothers of Colorado" statue at The Denver Post building
Downtown Denver cityscape, 1964. Includes Denver's oldest church (Trinity United Methodist), first building of the Mile High Center complex, Lincoln Center, old brownstone part of the Brown Palace Hotel, and Cosmopolitan Hotel – since demolished.
Aerial photograph of Denver from the northwest
Central Downtown Denver
325x325px
Satellite image of Denver in 2020
Denver's 78 official neighborhoods
Sloans Lake neighborhood in winter
Construction along Cherokee Street in the Golden Triangle neighborhood.
Map of racial distribution in Denver, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian , Hispanic , or Other (yellow)
The 17th street district includes many financial, business and corporate buildings.
The United States Mint in Denver (2010)
Republic Plaza, Colorado's tallest building
Wells Fargo "Cash Register" Building: Denver's most famous skyscraper
1144 15th St: One of Denver's newest skyscrapers
Denver products treemap, 2020
Development in the bustling Union Station section of downtown
The first Chipotle Mexican Grill, near the campus of the University of Denver
Colorado Convention Center
Denver City and County Building
Colorado Supreme Court - just before completion
Colorado State Capitol looking east
Dawn over downtown Denver, viewed from the north with Pikes Peak and the southern Front Range to the south.
Colfax Avenue at Broadway, where the downtown street grid and the "normal" city grid meet. Colfax Avenue carries U.S. Highway 40 through Denver.
Speer Boulevard runs north and south through downtown Denver.
Denver RTD light rail and bus lines
Denver Union Station
Commuter rail station at Denver International Airport
Inside the main terminal of Denver International Airport
Outside view of the main terminal, DIA
alt=|Denver Pavilions is a popular arts, entertainment, and shopping center on the 16th Street Mall in downtown Denver.
Denver Performing Arts Complex
alt=|Denver Art Museum
alt=|Civic Center Park: with museums and the central library in background
Empower Field at Mile High, home of the Denver Broncos
alt=|Ball Arena, home of the Denver Nuggets and the Colorado Avalanche
Coors Field, home of the Colorado Rockies
alt=|Dick's Sporting Goods Park, home of the Colorado Rapids
alt=|Cheesman Park started as a cemetery.
The Carla Madison Recreation Center, completed in 2017.
alt=|Red Rocks is a Denver park and world-famous amphitheater in the foothills
Washington Park
Genesee Park is the largest of the Denver Mountain Parks.
Denver East High School has seen several world famous people walk the halls as future alumni.
University of Colorado-Denver in downtown
The Ritchie Center at University of Denver

Ten days later, on February 28, 1861, the Colorado Territory was created, Arapahoe County was formed on November 1, 1861, and Denver City was incorporated on November 7, 1861.

Golden, Colorado

Home rule city that is the county seat of Jefferson County, Colorado, United States.

Home rule city that is the county seat of Jefferson County, Colorado, United States.

Golden in 1868
The Astor House Museum, the first stone building in Golden, was a boarding and rooming house from 1867 to 1971.
The Denver Tramway at Golden depot, 1909
Coors Brewery in Golden
Clear Creek, looking east from the Washington Avenue bridge in Golden, with South Table Mountain and tubers
One of the numerous highway tunnels through the rugged terrain between Idaho Springs and Golden

Golden City served as the capital of the provisional Territory of Jefferson from 1860 to 1861, and capital of the official Territory of Colorado from 1862 to 1867.

Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company

Historic railroad that operated in the western United States during the late 19th century.

Historic railroad that operated in the western United States during the late 19th century.

Formed in 1867 in the Colorado Territory, the company operated lines in Colorado and present-day southeastern Wyoming in the 1870s until merging with the Kansas Pacific and Union Pacific railroads in 1880.

New Mexico Territory

Organized incorporated territory of the United States from September 9, 1850, until January 6, 1912.

Organized incorporated territory of the United States from September 9, 1850, until January 6, 1912.

Map of the later Arizona and New Mexico Territories, split from the original New Mexico Territory of 1851, showing existing counties
Proposed boundaries for the earlier federal State of New Mexico, 1850
Map of the later Arizona and New Mexico Territories, split from the original New Mexico Territory of 1851, showing existing counties
New Mexico Territory, 1852
The Gadsden Purchase, 1853

The Colorado Territory was established by the "Colorado Organic Act" on February 28, 1861, with the same boundaries that would ultimately constitute the State of Colorado.

John Chivington

American Methodist pastor and Mason who served as a colonel in the United States Volunteers during the New Mexico Campaign of the American Civil War.

American Methodist pastor and Mason who served as a colonel in the United States Volunteers during the New Mexico Campaign of the American Civil War.

A delegation of Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Arapaho Chiefs in Denver, Colorado on September 28, 1864
Edmund Guerrier provided testimony to Congressional investigators at Fort Riley, Kansas in 1865 concerning the Sand Creek Massacre.
Chivington in his later years, by Edgar H. Rood

Colonel Chivington gained infamy for leading the 700-man force of Colorado Territory militia responsible for one of the most heinous war crimes in American military history: the November 1864 Sand Creek massacre.

Kansas Territory

Organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until January 29, 1861, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the free state of Kansas.

Organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until January 29, 1861, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the free state of Kansas.

Map of the United States in 1812
Site No. JF00-072: The Nebraska–Kansas state line at the intersection of Nebraska counties Thayer and Jefferson and Kansas counties Washington and Republic
1855 first edition of Colton's map of the Nebraska and Kansas Territories
Territorial changes of Kansas

The Territory of Colorado was created to govern this western region of the former Kansas Territory on February 28, 1861.

Nebraska Territory

Organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until March 1, 1867, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Nebraska.

Organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until March 1, 1867, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Nebraska.

$1 City of Omaha 1857 uniface banknote. The note is signed by Jesse Lowe in his function as Mayor of Omaha City. It was issued as scrip in 1857 to help fund the erection of the territorial capitol building at Omaha.
The front page of the December 6, 1854 issue of the Nebraska Palladium, the first newspaper to be published in the Nebraska Territory
The front page of the May 4, 1857 issue of the Nebraska Advertiser founded by Robert Wilkinson Furnas, in Brownville, Nebraska Territory
Site No. JF00-072: The Nebraska–Kansas state line at the intersection of Nebraska counties Thayer and Jefferson and Kansas counties Washington and Republic
Map of the territory of Nebraska and seal of the Nebraska Territory

The Colorado Territory was formed February 28, 1861 from portions of the territory south of 41° N and west of 102°03′ W (25° W of Washington, D.C.) (an area that includes present-day Fort Collins, Greeley and the portions of Boulder north of Baseline Road, in addition to portions of Kansas Territory, New Mexico Territory, and Utah Territory).

Map showing North American territorial boundaries leading up to the American Revolution and the founding of the United States: British claims are indicated in red and pink, while Spanish claims are in orange and yellow.

Historic regions of the United States

The territory of the United States and its overseas possessions has evolved over time, from the colonial era to the present day.

The territory of the United States and its overseas possessions has evolved over time, from the colonial era to the present day.

Map showing North American territorial boundaries leading up to the American Revolution and the founding of the United States: British claims are indicated in red and pink, while Spanish claims are in orange and yellow.
Map showing mid 17th century claims and land grant boundaries. Some colonies seen here are: Nova Scotia (NSc), Territory of Sagadahock (TS), First Province of Maine (Me), New Hampshire (NH), Plymouth (PC), Massachusetts Bay (MBC), New Netherland (NN), New Sweden (NSw), and Lord Baltimore's Land (Md; Maryland)
New World settlements of The Netherlands, collectively called New Netherland
The Massachusetts Bay Colony
French settlements and forts in the so-called Illinois Country, 1763, which encompassed parts of the modern day states of Illinois, Missouri, Indiana and Kentucky)
A 1775 map of the German Coast, a historical region of present-day Louisiana located above New Orleans on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River
Vandalia was the name of a proposed British colony located south of the Ohio River, primarily in what is now the U.S. states of West Virginia and eastern Kentucky
A proposal for the creation of Westsylvania was largely deterred by the Revolutionary War
National Atlas map of United States territorial acquisitions
Seward's Folly. The controversial purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867 turned out to be a great deal for the U.S. when the area proved to contain a treasure trove of natural resources.
The Oregon Country. The dispute over Oregon, between Britain and the U.S., led to an uneasy, parallel governing of the territory for almost 30 years.
Progression of the Indian Territory separation from the Arkansaw Territory, 1819–1836
Indiana lands acquired through treaties
The first state cessions. The 13 original states ceded their western claims to the federal government, allowing for the creation of the country's first western territories and states.
The Northwest Territory was a large and (at times) ill-defined territory ceded by Great Britain to the U.S. at the end of the Revolutionary War. British troops still occupied parts of the area well past 1800.
United States territorial expansion since 1803, maps by William R. Shepherd (1923)
Census Bureau map depicting territorial acquisitions and effective dates of statehood
The Ohio Country, indicating battle sites between settlers and Native American Tribes, 1775–1794
Selected tract purchases of western New York State
Map of the Ohio Lands
Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory, along with No Man's Land (also known as the Oklahoma Panhandle). The division of the two territories is shown with a heavy purple line. Together, these three areas would become the State of Oklahoma in 1907.
Pennsylvania land purchases from Native Americans
Post-Civil War military districts were set up to aid in the repatriation process of the southern states during Reconstruction.
The Panama Canal Zone was once a territory of the United States
The boundaries of the State of Deseret, as proposed in 1849
Animated map of secession and repatriation of the Confederacy, 1860–1870
The proposed State of Superior. The red areas show the counties of the Upper Peninsula that are generally accepted as being part of the proposed state. The pink areas show the counties of the "expanded" proposal.
The failed State of Lincoln, with its proposed 1868 boundaries
The Philippines was a commonwealth of the United States, 1935–1946
Worldwide location of current U.S. insular areas:
The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

Territory of Colorado (1861–1876) preceded by parts of the territories of Kansas, Utah, New Mexico and Nebraska; became the State of Colorado. (See also Jefferson Territory.)

The Battle of Glorieta Pass, Roy Andersen

Battle of Glorieta Pass

The decisive battle of the New Mexico campaign during the American Civil War.

The decisive battle of the New Mexico campaign during the American Civil War.

The Battle of Glorieta Pass, Roy Andersen
Action at Apache Canyon
Glorieta Pass battlefield. This photograph was taken in 1990 from Sharpshooter's Ridge, just north of Pigeon's Ranch. It was the location of the Union right flank during the last day's battle.
Battle of Glorieta Pass marker at the Cuerno Verde Rest Area, Colorado
The battlefield in 2012

The strategic goals were to gain access to the gold and silver mines of California and the Colorado Territory and the seaports in Southern California, and thus evade the Union naval blockade.