A report on Colorado Territory

The Colorado Territory as drawn in 1860 from the Utah, Nebraska, Kansas, and New Mexico Territories. Colorado appears to have a rectangular border at this scale, but there are in fact some slight deviations from a straight line along its southern border.
The Colorado Territory as drawn in 1860 from the Utah, Nebraska, Kansas, and New Mexico Territories. Colorado appears to have a rectangular border at this scale, but there are in fact some slight deviations from a straight line along its southern border.

Organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from February 28, 1861, until August 1, 1876, when it was admitted to the Union as the State of Colorado.

- Colorado Territory
The Colorado Territory as drawn in 1860 from the Utah, Nebraska, Kansas, and New Mexico Territories. Colorado appears to have a rectangular border at this scale, but there are in fact some slight deviations from a straight line along its southern border.

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John Evans (Colorado governor)

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Attica, Indiana, where Evans developed a successful medical practice, strategized about opening an asylum, and where his children were born.
Evans was a founder of Lakeside Hospital, now called Mercy Hospital
Railroad tracks
Denver, 1859. During its early history, Cherokee and Arapaho often camped in the area.
Cheyenne and Arapaho Delegation, Camp Weld, September 28, 1864
Black Kettle at Sand Creek, Buffalo Bill Center of the West
John Evans House, Denver, about 1870s. When the Evans first came to Denver, settlers established themselves in tents and simple low-roofed cabins. Then, they constructed simple frame houses. A house of brick was a rarity in Denver's early years.
Evans Memorial Chapel built by John Evans after the death of his daughter, Josephine Evans Elbert. It is located on the University of Denver campus
John Evans' grave marker in Denver's Riverside Cemetery

John Evans (March 9, 1814 – July 2, 1897) was an American politician, physician, founder of various hospitals and medical associations, railroad promoter, governor of the territory of Colorado, and namesake of Evanston, Illinois; Evans, Colorado; and Mount Evans, Colorado.

Nebraska Territory

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Organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until March 1, 1867, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Nebraska.

Organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until March 1, 1867, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Nebraska.

$1 City of Omaha 1857 uniface banknote. The note is signed by Jesse Lowe in his function as Mayor of Omaha City. It was issued as scrip in 1857 to help fund the erection of the territorial capitol building at Omaha.
The front page of the December 6, 1854 issue of the Nebraska Palladium, the first newspaper to be published in the Nebraska Territory
The front page of the May 4, 1857 issue of the Nebraska Advertiser founded by Robert Wilkinson Furnas, in Brownville, Nebraska Territory
Site No. JF00-072: The Nebraska–Kansas state line at the intersection of Nebraska counties Thayer and Jefferson and Kansas counties Washington and Republic
Map of the territory of Nebraska and seal of the Nebraska Territory

The Colorado Territory was formed February 28, 1861 from portions of the territory south of 41° N and west of 102°03′ W (25° W of Washington, D.C.) (an area that includes present-day Fort Collins, Greeley and the portions of Boulder north of Baseline Road, in addition to portions of Kansas Territory, New Mexico Territory, and Utah Territory).

The Battle of Glorieta Pass, Roy Andersen

Battle of Glorieta Pass

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The decisive battle of the New Mexico campaign during the American Civil War.

The decisive battle of the New Mexico campaign during the American Civil War.

The Battle of Glorieta Pass, Roy Andersen
Action at Apache Canyon
Glorieta Pass battlefield. This photograph was taken in 1990 from Sharpshooter's Ridge, just north of Pigeon's Ranch. It was the location of the Union right flank during the last day's battle.
Battle of Glorieta Pass marker at the Cuerno Verde Rest Area, Colorado
The battlefield in 2012
Battle of Glorieta Pass: actions on March 28
Confederate
Union

The strategic goals were to gain access to the gold and silver mines of California and the Colorado Territory and the seaports in Southern California, and thus evade the Union naval blockade.

William A. H. Loveland from a 19th-century engraving

William A. H. Loveland

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U.S. railroad entrepreneur and businessman in the late 19th century.

U.S. railroad entrepreneur and businessman in the late 19th century.

William A. H. Loveland from a 19th-century engraving

An early resident of Golden when it was the capital of the Colorado Territory, he was one of the founders of the Colorado Central Railroad and a principal figure in the early history of Colorado.

A delegation of Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Arapaho chiefs at Denver, Colorado on September 28, 1864. Black Kettle is second from left in the front row.

Colorado War

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A delegation of Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Arapaho chiefs at Denver, Colorado on September 28, 1864. Black Kettle is second from left in the front row.
A map of the Colorado War
Indian land as defined by the Treaty of Fort Laramie
Painting of a Cheyenne scout
The Camp Weld Conference, September 28, 1864, with the Cheyenne and Arapaho. Major Wynkoop is kneeling left. Black Kettle is third from the left in the middle row.
Colonel John M. Chivington
Spotted Tail, the Brulé Sioux leader
Edmond Guerrier was the son of Frenchman William Guerrier and Walks In Sight, a Cheyenne. A survivor of the Sand Creek massacre, Guerrier testified to Congressional investigators at Fort Riley, Kansas in 1865 about the massacre.
Mixed blood Cheyenne warrior George Bent and his wife, Magpie. Bent was a survivor of the Sand Creek massacre.
Painting of a Cheyenne scout

The Colorado War was an Indian War fought in 1864 and 1865 between the Southern Cheyenne, Arapaho, and allied Brulé and Oglala Sioux (or Lakota) peoples versus the U.S. army, Colorado militia, and white settlers in Colorado Territory and adjacent regions.

Utah Territory

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Organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from September 9, 1850, until January 4, 1896, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Utah, the 45th state.

Organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from September 9, 1850, until January 4, 1896, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Utah, the 45th state.

The Utah Territory upon its creation, with modern state boundaries shown for reference
The evolution of the Utah Territory from its creation by Congress in 1850 to 1896, when statehood was granted
The Utah Territory upon its creation, with modern state boundaries shown for reference

In 1861 a large portion of the eastern area of the territory was reorganized as part of the newly created Colorado Territory.

Missouri Compromise line (36°30′ parallel) in dark blue, 1820. Territory above this line would be reserved for free states, and below, slave states

Kansas–Nebraska Act

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Territorial organic act that created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska.

Territorial organic act that created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska.

Missouri Compromise line (36°30′ parallel) in dark blue, 1820. Territory above this line would be reserved for free states, and below, slave states
The United States after the Compromise of 1850 and the Gadsden Purchase. Douglas sought to organize parts of the area labeled as "Unorganized territory."
Stephen A. Douglas – "The great principle of self-government is at stake, and surely the people of this country are never going to decide that the principle upon which our whole republican system rests is vicious and wrong."
Forcing Slavery Down the Throat of a Freesoiler. An 1854 cartoon depicts a giant free soiler being held down by James Buchanan and Lewis Cass, standing on the Democratic platform of making slave states out of "Kansas," "Cuba," and "Central America". Franklin Pierce also holds down the giant's beard, as Stephen A. Douglas shoves a black man down his throat.
Sam Houston from Texas was one of the few southern opponents of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. In the debate, he urged, "Maintain the Missouri Compromise! Stir not up agitation! Give us peace!"
Alexander Stephens from Georgia – "Nebraska is through the House. I took the reins in my hand, applied the whip and spur, and brought the 'wagon' out at eleven o'clock P.M. Glory enough for one day."
Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri – "What is the excuse for all this turmoil and mischief? We are told it is to keep the question of slavery out of Congress! Great God! It was out of Congress, completely, entirely, and forever out of Congress, unless Congress dragged it in by breaking down the sacred laws which settled it!"
Charles Sumner on Douglas – "Alas! too often those principles which give consistency, individuality, and form to the Northern character, which renders it staunch, strong, and seaworthy, which bind it together as with iron, are drawn out, one by one, like the bolts of the ill-fitted vessel, and from the miserable, loosened fragments is formed that human anomaly—a Northern man with Southern principles. Sir, no such man can speak for the North."
This 1856 map shows slave states (gray), free states (pink), U.S. territories (green), and Kansas (white)

A large portion of Nebraska Territory would soon be split off into Dakota Territory (1861), and smaller portions transferred to Colorado Territory (1861) and Idaho Territory (1863) before the balance of the land became the State of Nebraska in 1867.

Old Colorado City

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Once a town, but it is now a neighborhood within the city of Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Once a town, but it is now a neighborhood within the city of Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Garden of the Gods formations
Former El Paso County courthouse, Old Colorado City
City Hall of Old Colorado City, built in 1892
Old Colorado City Branch Carnegie Library
Old Colorado City monument
Old Colorado City Plaza at Bancroft Park

It was briefly the capital of the Colorado Territory.

John Potts Slough

John P. Slough

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American politician, lawyer, Union general during the American Civil War, and Chief Justice of New Mexico.

American politician, lawyer, Union general during the American Civil War, and Chief Justice of New Mexico.

John Potts Slough

With the establishment of the new Colorado Territory in early 1861, he helped organize the courts system, establishment of the bar, and review of professional peers.

Bent's Old Fort's internal courtyard and fur press

List of forts in Colorado

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List of military and trading forts established in the U.S. State of Colorado.

List of military and trading forts established in the U.S. State of Colorado.

Bent's Old Fort's internal courtyard and fur press

William Butler, who wrote about the fur trade in Colorado, stated that there were 24 trading posts built in the pre-territorial area of what is now Colorado.