Location and appearance of two example colorectal tumors
The three most common sites of intestinal involvement in Crohn's disease (left) compared to the areas affected by colitis ulcerosa (right).
Longitudinally opened freshly resected colon segment showing a cancer and four polyps. Plus a schematic diagram indicating a likely field defect (a region of tissue that precedes and predisposes to the development of cancer) in this colon segment. The diagram indicates sub-clones and sub-sub-clones that were precursors to the tumors.
An aphthous ulcer on the mucous membrane of the mouth in Crohn's disease.
Colon cancer with extensive metastases to the liver
A single lesion of erythema nodosum
Relative incidence of various histopathological types of colorectal cancer. The vast majority of colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas.
Endoscopic image of colon cancer identified in the sigmoid colon on screening colonoscopy for Crohn's disease
Micrograph of colorectal adenocarcinoma, showing "dirty necrosis".
NOD2 protein model with schematic diagram. Two N-terminal CARD domains (red) connected via helical linker (blue) with central NBD domain (green). At C-terminus LRR domain (cyan) is located. Additionally, some mutations which are associated with certain disease patterns in Crohn's disease are marked in red wire representation.
A diagram of a local resection of early stage colon cancer
Distribution of gastrointestinal Crohn's disease.
A diagram of local surgery for rectal cancer
Endoscopic image of Crohn's colitis showing deep ulceration
Colon and rectum cancer deaths per million persons in 2012
CT scan showing Crohn's disease in the fundus of the stomach
Endoscopic biopsy showing granulomatous inflammation of the colon in a case of Crohn's disease.
Section of colectomy showing transmural inflammation
Resected ileum from a person with Crohn's disease

Bowel obstruction may occur as a complication of chronic inflammation, and those with the disease are at greater risk of colon cancer and small bowel cancer.

- Crohn's disease

Another risk factor is inflammatory bowel disease, which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

- Colorectal cancer
Location and appearance of two example colorectal tumors

9 related topics

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Colonoscopy being performed

Colonoscopy

Endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.

Endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.

Colonoscopy being performed
A container of PEG (polyethylene glycol or macrogol) with electrolyte used to clean out the intestines before certain bowel exam procedures such as a colonoscopy.
Schematic overview of colonoscopy procedure
Polyp is identified.
A sterile solution is injected under the polyp to lift it away from deeper tissues.
A portion of the polyp is now removed.
The polyp is fully removed.

It can provide a visual diagnosis (e.g., ulceration, polyps) and grants the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected colorectal cancer lesions.

In most cases the positive result is just due to hemorrhoids; however, it can also be due to diverticulosis, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), colon cancer, or polyps.

Endoscopic image of a colon affected by ulcerative colitis. The internal surface of the colon is blotchy and broken in places. Mild-moderate disease.

Ulcerative colitis

Long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.

Long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.

Endoscopic image of a colon affected by ulcerative colitis. The internal surface of the colon is blotchy and broken in places. Mild-moderate disease.
Classification of colitis, often used in defining the extent of involvement of ulcerative colitis, with proctitis (blue), proctosigmoiditis (yellow), left sided colitis (orange) and pancolitis (red). All classes extend distally to the end of the rectum.
Gross pathology of normal colon (left) and severe ulcerative colitis (right), forming pseudopolyps (smaller than the cobblestoning typically seen in Crohn's disease), over a continuous area (rather than skip lesions of Crohn's disease), and with a relatively gradual transition from normal colon (while Crohn's is typically more abrupt).
Aphthous ulcers involving the tongue, lips, palate, and pharynx.
Pyoderma gangrenosum with large ulcerations affecting the back.
Endoscopic image of ulcerative colitis affecting the left side of the colon. The image shows confluent superficial ulceration and loss of mucosal architecture. Crohn's disease may be similar in appearance, a fact that can make diagnosing UC a challenge.
H&E stain of a colonic biopsy showing a crypt abscess, a classic finding in ulcerative colitis
Colonic pseudopolyps of a person with intractable UC, colectomy specimen
Biopsy sample (H&E stain) that demonstrates marked lymphocytic infiltration (blue/purple) of the intestinal mucosa and architectural distortion of the crypts.

Complications may include abnormal dilation of the colon (megacolon), inflammation of the eye, joints, or liver, and colon cancer.

It is a kind of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) along with Crohn's disease and microscopic colitis.

Diagram of stomach, intestines and rectum in the average human

Gastrointestinal tract

Tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the anus.

Tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the anus.

Diagram of stomach, intestines and rectum in the average human
Illustration of the small intestine

Inflammatory bowel disease is an inflammatory condition affecting the bowel walls, and includes the subtypes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

Gastrointestinal cancer may occur at any point in the gastrointestinal tract, and includes mouth cancer, tongue cancer, oesophageal cancer, stomach cancer, and colorectal cancer.

Micrograph showing inflammation of the large bowel in a case of inflammatory bowel disease. Colonic biopsy. H&E stain.

Inflammatory bowel disease

Micrograph showing inflammation of the large bowel in a case of inflammatory bowel disease. Colonic biopsy. H&E stain.
Associated loci pane. Pink genes are in IBD associated loci, blue are not.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis being the principal types.

Many studies identified that microRNAs dysregulation involved in IBD and to promote colorectal cancer.

A coronal CT scan showing a malignant mesothelioma
Legend: → tumor ←, ✱ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver

Cancer

Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

A coronal CT scan showing a malignant mesothelioma
Legend: → tumor ←, ✱ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver
Symptoms of cancer metastasis depend on the location of the tumor.
The GHS Hazard pictogram for carcinogenic substances
Share of cancer deaths attributed to tobacco in 2016.
The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking.
Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.
The central role of DNA damage and epigenetic defects in DNA repair genes in carcinogenesis
Chest X-ray showing lung cancer in the left lung
Three measures of global cancer mortality from 1990 to 2017
Engraving with two views of a Dutch woman who had a tumor removed from her neck in 1689
University of Florida Cancer Hospital
CancerTreeMammal
An invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (pale area at the center) surrounded by spikes of whitish scar tissue and yellow fatty tissue
An invasive colorectal carcinoma (top center) in a colectomy specimen
A squamous-cell carcinoma (the whitish tumor) near the bronchi in a lung specimen
A large invasive ductal carcinoma in a mastectomy specimen

Early detection through screening is useful for cervical and colorectal cancer.

Rates of gastrointestinal cancers are increased in people with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, due to chronic inflammation.

Polyp of sigmoid colon as revealed by colonoscopy. Approximately 1 cm in diameter. The polyp was removed by snare cautery.

Colorectal polyp

Polyp occurring on the lining of the colon or rectum.

Polyp occurring on the lining of the colon or rectum.

Polyp of sigmoid colon as revealed by colonoscopy. Approximately 1 cm in diameter. The polyp was removed by snare cautery.
Incidences and malignancy risks of various types of colorectal polyps.
Microvesicular hyperplastic polyp. H&E stain.
Microvesicular hyperplastic polyp. H&E stain.
Traditional serrated adenoma. H&E stain.
Gross appearance of a colectomy specimen containing two colorectal polyps and one invasive colorectal carcinoma
Micrograph of a tubular adenoma, the most common type of dysplastic polyp in the colon.
Micrograph of a sessile serrated adenoma. H&E stain.
Micrograph of a Peutz–Jeghers colonic polyp – a type of hamartomatous polyp. H&E stain.
Micrograph of a tubular adenoma – dysplastic epithelium (dark purple) on left of image; normal epithelium (blue) on right. H&E stain.
Micrograph of a villous adenoma. These polyps are considered to have a high risk of malignant transformation. H&E stain.
Paris classification of colorectal neoplasms.<ref>{{cite book|title=Colonoscopy and Colorectal Cancer Screening: Future Directions|author=Luis Bujanda Fernández de Piérola, Joaquin Cubiella Fernández, Fernando Múgica Aguinaga, Lander Hijona Muruamendiaraz and Carol Julyssa Cobián Malaver|contribution=Malignant Colorectal Polyps: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prognosis|year=2013|doi=10.5772/52697|isbn=9789535109495}} Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License</ref>

Untreated colorectal polyps can develop into colorectal cancer.

These are polyps that are associated with inflammatory conditions such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

Modern CT scanner

CT scan

Medical imaging technique used in radiology (x-ray) to obtain detailed internal images of the body noninvasively for diagnostic purposes.

Medical imaging technique used in radiology (x-ray) to obtain detailed internal images of the body noninvasively for diagnostic purposes.

Modern CT scanner
Drawing of CT fan beam and patient in a CT imaging system
Computed tomography of human brain, from base of the skull to top. Taken with intravenous contrast medium.
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Bronchial wall thickness (T) and diameter of the bronchus (D)
Example of a CTPA, demonstrating a saddle embolus (dark horizontal line) occluding the pulmonary arteries (bright white triangle)
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Types of presentations of CT scans:
- Average intensity projection
- Maximum intensity projection
- Thin slice (median plane)
- Volume rendering by high and low threshold for radiodensity
Typical screen layout for diagnostic software, showing one volume rendering (VR) and multiplanar view of three thin slices in the axial (upper right), sagittal (lower left), and coronal planes (lower right)
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3D human skull from computed tomography data
Left image is a sinogram which is a graphic representation of the raw data obtained from a CT scan. At right is an image sample derived from the raw data.

It has more recently been used for preventive medicine or screening for disease, for example, CT colonography for people with a high risk of colon cancer, or full-motion heart scans for people with a high risk of heart disease.

CT is an accurate technique for diagnosis of abdominal diseases like Crohn's disease, GIT bleeding, and diagnosis and staging of cancer, as well as follow-up after cancer treatment to assess response.

The diagram above represents the process of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CAR), this is a method of immunotherapy, which is a growing practice in the treatment of cancer. The final result should be a production of equipped T-cells that can recognize and fight the infected cancer cells in the body.

Immunotherapy

Treatment of disease by activating or suppressing the immune system.

Treatment of disease by activating or suppressing the immune system.

The diagram above represents the process of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CAR), this is a method of immunotherapy, which is a growing practice in the treatment of cancer. The final result should be a production of equipped T-cells that can recognize and fight the infected cancer cells in the body.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are approved to treat some patients with a variety of cancer types, including melanoma, breast cancer, bladder cancer, cervical cancer, colon cancer, head and neck cancer, or Hodgkin lymphoma.

Helminthic therapy has been investigated as a treatment for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis Crohn's, allergies and asthma.

Micrograph of the small intestine mucosa showing the intestinal glands - bottom 1/3 of image. H&E stain.

Intestinal gland

Intestinal gland is a gland found in between villi in the intestinal epithelium lining of the small intestine and large intestine (or colon).

Intestinal gland is a gland found in between villi in the intestinal epithelium lining of the small intestine and large intestine (or colon).

Micrograph of the small intestine mucosa showing the intestinal glands - bottom 1/3 of image. H&E stain.
Colonic crypts (intestinal glands) within four tissue sections. In panel A, the bar shows 100 µm and allows an estimate of the frequency of crypts in the colonic epithelium. Panel B includes three crypts in cross-section, each with one segment deficient for CCOI expression and at least one crypt, on the right side, undergoing fission into two crypts. Panel C shows, on the left side, a crypt fissioning into two crypts. Panel D shows typical small clusters of two and three CCOI deficient crypts (the bar shows 50 µm). The images were made from original photomicrographs, but panels A, B and D were also included in an article
Micrograph showing intestinal crypt branching, a histopathological finding of chronic colitides. H&E stain.
Micrograph showing crypt inflammation. H&E stain.

Loss of proliferation control in the crypts is thought to lead to colorectal cancer.

inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease),