Location and appearance of two example colorectal tumors
Endoscopic image of sigmoid colon of patient with familial adenomatous polyposis
Longitudinally opened freshly resected colon segment showing a cancer and four polyps. Plus a schematic diagram indicating a likely field defect (a region of tissue that precedes and predisposes to the development of cancer) in this colon segment. The diagram indicates sub-clones and sub-sub-clones that were precursors to the tumors.
CHRPE - Congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium
Colon cancer with extensive metastases to the liver
Micrograph of a tubular adenoma, the colorectal cancer precursor most commonly associated with FAP
Relative incidence of various histopathological types of colorectal cancer. The vast majority of colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas.
Colectomy specimen showing numerous polyps throughout the large bowel
Micrograph of colorectal adenocarcinoma, showing "dirty necrosis".
A diagram of a local resection of early stage colon cancer
A diagram of local surgery for rectal cancer
Colon and rectum cancer deaths per million persons in 2012

While these polyps start out benign, malignant transformation into colon cancer occurs when they are left untreated.

- Familial adenomatous polyposis

Some of the inherited genetic disorders that can cause colorectal cancer include familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer; however, these represent less than 5% of cases.

- Colorectal cancer
Location and appearance of two example colorectal tumors

7 related topics

Alpha

Polyp of sigmoid colon as revealed by colonoscopy. Approximately 1 cm in diameter. The polyp was removed by snare cautery.

Colorectal polyp

Polyp occurring on the lining of the colon or rectum.

Polyp occurring on the lining of the colon or rectum.

Polyp of sigmoid colon as revealed by colonoscopy. Approximately 1 cm in diameter. The polyp was removed by snare cautery.
Incidences and malignancy risks of various types of colorectal polyps.
Microvesicular hyperplastic polyp. H&E stain.
Microvesicular hyperplastic polyp. H&E stain.
Traditional serrated adenoma. H&E stain.
Gross appearance of a colectomy specimen containing two colorectal polyps and one invasive colorectal carcinoma
Micrograph of a tubular adenoma, the most common type of dysplastic polyp in the colon.
Micrograph of a sessile serrated adenoma. H&E stain.
Micrograph of a Peutz–Jeghers colonic polyp – a type of hamartomatous polyp. H&E stain.
Micrograph of a tubular adenoma – dysplastic epithelium (dark purple) on left of image; normal epithelium (blue) on right. H&E stain.
Micrograph of a villous adenoma. These polyps are considered to have a high risk of malignant transformation. H&E stain.
Paris classification of colorectal neoplasms.<ref>{{cite book|title=Colonoscopy and Colorectal Cancer Screening: Future Directions|author=Luis Bujanda Fernández de Piérola, Joaquin Cubiella Fernández, Fernando Múgica Aguinaga, Lander Hijona Muruamendiaraz and Carol Julyssa Cobián Malaver|contribution=Malignant Colorectal Polyps: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prognosis|year=2013|doi=10.5772/52697|isbn=9789535109495}} Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License</ref>

Untreated colorectal polyps can develop into colorectal cancer.

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)

Familial Adenomatous Polyposis of the intestine

Adenomatous polyposis coli

Protein that in humans is encoded by the APC gene.

Protein that in humans is encoded by the APC gene.

Familial Adenomatous Polyposis of the intestine
Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in apoptosis.

Mutations in the APC gene may result in colorectal cancer.

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by an inherited, inactivating mutation in the APC gene.

Gardner's syndrome

Gardner syndrome has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.

Gardner's syndrome (also known as Gardner syndrome, familial polyposis of the colon, or familial colorectal polyposis ) is a subtype of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).

The countless polyps in the colon predispose to the development of colon cancer; if the colon is not removed, the chance of colon cancer is considered to be very significant.

The simplified structure of beta-catenin.

Catenin beta-1

Protein that in humans is encoded by the CTNNB1 gene.

Protein that in humans is encoded by the CTNNB1 gene.

The simplified structure of beta-catenin.
Partners competing for the main binding site on the ARM domain of beta-catenin. The auxiliary binding site is not shown.
Simplified structure of the beta-catenin destruction complex. Note the high proportion of intrinsically disordered segments in the axin and APC proteins.
The moonlighting of beta-catenin.
Beta-catenin level regulation and cancer.

Mutations and overexpression of β-catenin are associated with many cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, lung cancer, malignant breast tumors, ovarian and endometrial cancer.

Therefore, genetic mutation of the APC gene is also strongly linked to cancers, and in particular colorectal cancer resulting from familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).

Celecoxib

COX-2 inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug .

COX-2 inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug .

400px
400px
400px
400px

It may also be used to decrease the risk of colorectal adenomas in people with familial adenomatous polyposis.

The use of celecoxib to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer has been investigated, but neither celecoxib nor any other drug is indicated for this use.

A coronal CT scan showing a malignant mesothelioma
Legend: → tumor ←, ✱ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver

Cancer

Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

A coronal CT scan showing a malignant mesothelioma
Legend: → tumor ←, ✱ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver
Symptoms of cancer metastasis depend on the location of the tumor.
The GHS Hazard pictogram for carcinogenic substances
Share of cancer deaths attributed to tobacco in 2016.
The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking.
Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.
The central role of DNA damage and epigenetic defects in DNA repair genes in carcinogenesis
Chest X-ray showing lung cancer in the left lung
Three measures of global cancer mortality from 1990 to 2017
Engraving with two views of a Dutch woman who had a tumor removed from her neck in 1689
University of Florida Cancer Hospital
CancerTreeMammal
An invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (pale area at the center) surrounded by spikes of whitish scar tissue and yellow fatty tissue
An invasive colorectal carcinoma (top center) in a colectomy specimen
A squamous-cell carcinoma (the whitish tumor) near the bronchi in a lung specimen
A large invasive ductal carcinoma in a mastectomy specimen

Early detection through screening is useful for cervical and colorectal cancer.

COX-2 inhibitors may decrease the rate of polyp formation in people with familial adenomatous polyposis; however, it is associated with the same adverse effects as NSAIDs.

Cancers and tumors are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.

Carcinogenesis

Formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.

Formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.

Cancers and tumors are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.
The central role of DNA damage and epigenetic defects in DNA repair genes in carcinogenesis
Longitudinally opened freshly resected colon segment showing a cancer and four polyps. Plus a schematic diagram indicating a likely field defect (a region of tissue that precedes and predisposes to the development of cancer) in this colon segment. The diagram indicates sub-clones and sub-sub-clones that were precursors to the tumors.
Tissue can be organized in a continuous spectrum from normal to cancer.
Many tumor suppressor genes effect signal transduction pathways that regulate apoptosis, also known as "programmed cell death".
Multiple mutations in cancer cells

Other inherited tumor suppressor gene syndromes include Rb mutations, linked to retinoblastoma, and APC gene mutations, linked to adenopolyposis colon cancer.

Adenopolyposis colon cancer is associated with thousands of polyps in colon while young, leading to colon cancer at a relatively early age.