A report on Colorectal cancer and Panitumumab

Location and appearance of two example colorectal tumors
Longitudinally opened freshly resected colon segment showing a cancer and four polyps. Plus a schematic diagram indicating a likely field defect (a region of tissue that precedes and predisposes to the development of cancer) in this colon segment. The diagram indicates sub-clones and sub-sub-clones that were precursors to the tumors.
Colon cancer with extensive metastases to the liver
Relative incidence of various histopathological types of colorectal cancer. The vast majority of colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas.
Micrograph of colorectal adenocarcinoma, showing "dirty necrosis".
A diagram of a local resection of early stage colon cancer
A diagram of local surgery for rectal cancer
Colon and rectum cancer deaths per million persons in 2012

Panitumumab was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the first time in September 2006, for "the treatment of EGFR-expressing metastatic colorectal cancer with disease progression" despite prior treatment.

- Panitumumab

Another class of drugs used in the second line setting are epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, of which the three FDA approved ones are aflibercept, cetuximab and panitumumab.

- Colorectal cancer
Location and appearance of two example colorectal tumors

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Cetuximab

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Cetuximab, sold under the brand name Erbitux, is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor medication used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer and head and neck cancer.

In July 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved cetuximab (Erbitux) for treatment of colon cancer with wild-type KRAS, since it had little or no effect in colorectal tumors harboring a KRAS mutation (this also applied to the EGFR antibody panitumumab).

EGFR signaling cascades

Epidermal growth factor receptor

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Transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.

Transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.

EGFR signaling cascades

The identification of EGFR as an oncogene has led to the development of anticancer therapeutics directed against EGFR (called "EGFR inhibitors", EGFRi), including gefitinib, erlotinib, afatinib, brigatinib and icotinib for lung cancer, and cetuximab for colon cancer.

Cetuximab and panitumumab are examples of monoclonal antibody inhibitors.

Surface model of a KRASG12C protein, showing a GDP molecule (orange) in its high-affinity binding site and the covalent inhibitor sotorasib (aqua) occupying an adjacent "cryptic" binding pocket. Sotorasib forms an irreversible bond with a cysteine residue and disrupts function of the mutated protein. From.

KRAS

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Gene that provides instructions for making a protein called K-Ras, a part of the RAS/MAPK pathway.

Gene that provides instructions for making a protein called K-Ras, a part of the RAS/MAPK pathway.

Surface model of a KRASG12C protein, showing a GDP molecule (orange) in its high-affinity binding site and the covalent inhibitor sotorasib (aqua) occupying an adjacent "cryptic" binding pocket. Sotorasib forms an irreversible bond with a cysteine residue and disrupts function of the mutated protein. From.

The transforming protein that results is implicated in various malignancies, including lung adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenoma, ductal carcinoma of the pancreas and colorectal cancer.

KRAS mutation is predictive of a very poor response to panitumumab (Vectibix) and cetuximab (Erbitux) therapy in colorectal cancer.