Colorectal cancer

Location and appearance of two example colorectal tumors
Longitudinally opened freshly resected colon segment showing a cancer and four polyps. Plus a schematic diagram indicating a likely field defect (a region of tissue that precedes and predisposes to the development of cancer) in this colon segment. The diagram indicates sub-clones and sub-sub-clones that were precursors to the tumors.
Colon cancer with extensive metastases to the liver
Relative incidence of various histopathological types of colorectal cancer. The vast majority of colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas.
Micrograph of colorectal adenocarcinoma, showing "dirty necrosis".
A diagram of a local resection of early stage colon cancer
A diagram of local surgery for rectal cancer
Colon and rectum cancer deaths per million persons in 2012

Development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).

- Colorectal cancer
Location and appearance of two example colorectal tumors

76 related topics

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Cancers and tumors are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.

Carcinogenesis

Formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.

Formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.

Cancers and tumors are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.
The central role of DNA damage and epigenetic defects in DNA repair genes in carcinogenesis
Longitudinally opened freshly resected colon segment showing a cancer and four polyps. Plus a schematic diagram indicating a likely field defect (a region of tissue that precedes and predisposes to the development of cancer) in this colon segment. The diagram indicates sub-clones and sub-sub-clones that were precursors to the tumors.
Tissue can be organized in a continuous spectrum from normal to cancer.
Many tumor suppressor genes effect signal transduction pathways that regulate apoptosis, also known as "programmed cell death".
Multiple mutations in cancer cells

Adenopolyposis colon cancer is associated with thousands of polyps in colon while young, leading to colon cancer at a relatively early age.

3D Medical Illustration depicting the TNM Stages in breast cancer

Cancer staging

Process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.

Process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.

3D Medical Illustration depicting the TNM Stages in breast cancer
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Colon cancer: originally consisted of four stages: A, B, C, and D (the Dukes staging system). More recently, colon cancer staging is indicated either by the original A-D stages or by TNM.

Crystal protein structure of Wnt8 and the cysteine-rich domain of Frizzled 8

Wnt signaling pathway

The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways which begin with proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors.

The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways which begin with proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors.

Crystal protein structure of Wnt8 and the cysteine-rich domain of Frizzled 8
Figure 2. Wnt binds to (activates) the receptor. Axin is removed from the "destruction complex." β-Cat moves into the nucleus, binds to a transcription factor on DNA, and activates transcription of a protein. "P" represents phosphate.
Figure 1. Wnt doesn't bind to the receptor. Axin, GSK and APC form a "destruction complex," and β-Cat is destroyed.
Canonical Wnt pathway
Noncanonical PCP pathway
Noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway
Diagram illustrating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition
Diagram illustrating the interaction between the Wnt and insulin signaling pathways

Changes in CTNNB1 expression, which is the gene that encodes β-catenin, can be measured in breast, colorectal, melanoma, prostate, lung, and other cancers.

Schematic of construction of a cylindrical superconducting MR scanner

Magnetic resonance imaging

Medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body.

Medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body.

Schematic of construction of a cylindrical superconducting MR scanner
A mobile MRI unit visiting Glebefields Health Centre, Tipton, England
Effects of TR and TE on MR signal
Examples of T1-weighted, T2-weighted and PD-weighted MRI scans
Patient being positioned for MR study of the head and abdomen
MRI diffusion tensor imaging of white matter tracts
MR angiogram in congenital heart disease
Magnetic resonance angiography
Motion artifact (T1 coronal study of cervical vertebrae)

MRI is the investigation of choice in the preoperative staging of rectal and prostate cancer and has a role in the diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of other tumors, as well as for determining areas of tissue for sampling in biobanking.

Familial Adenomatous Polyposis of the intestine

Adenomatous polyposis coli

Protein that in humans is encoded by the APC gene.

Protein that in humans is encoded by the APC gene.

Familial Adenomatous Polyposis of the intestine
Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in apoptosis.

Mutations in the APC gene may result in colorectal cancer.

The diagram above represents the process of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CAR), this is a method of immunotherapy, which is a growing practice in the treatment of cancer. The final result should be a production of equipped T-cells that can recognize and fight the infected cancer cells in the body.

Immunotherapy

Treatment of disease by activating or suppressing the immune system.

Treatment of disease by activating or suppressing the immune system.

The diagram above represents the process of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CAR), this is a method of immunotherapy, which is a growing practice in the treatment of cancer. The final result should be a production of equipped T-cells that can recognize and fight the infected cancer cells in the body.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are approved to treat some patients with a variety of cancer types, including melanoma, breast cancer, bladder cancer, cervical cancer, colon cancer, head and neck cancer, or Hodgkin lymphoma.

EGFR signaling cascades

Epidermal growth factor receptor

Transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.

Transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.

EGFR signaling cascades

The identification of EGFR as an oncogene has led to the development of anticancer therapeutics directed against EGFR (called "EGFR inhibitors", EGFRi), including gefitinib, erlotinib, afatinib, brigatinib and icotinib for lung cancer, and cetuximab for colon cancer.

Micrograph of the small intestine mucosa showing the intestinal glands - bottom 1/3 of image. H&E stain.

Intestinal gland

Intestinal gland is a gland found in between villi in the intestinal epithelium lining of the small intestine and large intestine (or colon).

Intestinal gland is a gland found in between villi in the intestinal epithelium lining of the small intestine and large intestine (or colon).

Micrograph of the small intestine mucosa showing the intestinal glands - bottom 1/3 of image. H&E stain.
Colonic crypts (intestinal glands) within four tissue sections. In panel A, the bar shows 100 µm and allows an estimate of the frequency of crypts in the colonic epithelium. Panel B includes three crypts in cross-section, each with one segment deficient for CCOI expression and at least one crypt, on the right side, undergoing fission into two crypts. Panel C shows, on the left side, a crypt fissioning into two crypts. Panel D shows typical small clusters of two and three CCOI deficient crypts (the bar shows 50 µm). The images were made from original photomicrographs, but panels A, B and D were also included in an article
Micrograph showing intestinal crypt branching, a histopathological finding of chronic colitides. H&E stain.
Micrograph showing crypt inflammation. H&E stain.

Loss of proliferation control in the crypts is thought to lead to colorectal cancer.

Panitumumab

Fully human monoclonal antibody specific to the epidermal growth factor receptor (also known as EGF receptor, EGFR, ErbB-1 and HER1 in humans).

Fully human monoclonal antibody specific to the epidermal growth factor receptor (also known as EGF receptor, EGFR, ErbB-1 and HER1 in humans).

It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the first time in September 2006, for "the treatment of EGFR-expressing metastatic colorectal cancer with disease progression" despite prior treatment.

One frame of a CT scan of the chest showing the heart and lungs.

Medical imaging

Technique and process of imaging the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues .

Technique and process of imaging the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues .

One frame of a CT scan of the chest showing the heart and lungs.
Plain x-ray of the wrist and hand
One frame of an MRI scan of the head showing the eyes and brain.
Ultrasound image showing the liver, gallbladder and common bile duct.
3D tactile image (C) is composed from 2D pressure maps (B) recorded in the process of tissue phantom examination (A).
Basic principle of tomography: superposition free tomographic cross sections S1 and S2 compared with the (not tomographic) projected image P
CT scanning (volume rendered in this case) confers a radiation dose to the developing fetus.
In a derivative of a medical image created in the U.S., added annotations and explanations may be copyrightable, but the medical image itself remains public domain.

Projectional radiographs, more commonly known as x-rays, are often used to determine the type and extent of a fracture as well as for detecting pathological changes in the lungs. With the use of radio-opaque contrast media, such as barium, they can also be used to visualize the structure of the stomach and intestines – this can help diagnose ulcers or certain types of colon cancer.