A report on Colorectal cancer

Location and appearance of two example colorectal tumors
Longitudinally opened freshly resected colon segment showing a cancer and four polyps. Plus a schematic diagram indicating a likely field defect (a region of tissue that precedes and predisposes to the development of cancer) in this colon segment. The diagram indicates sub-clones and sub-sub-clones that were precursors to the tumors.
Colon cancer with extensive metastases to the liver
Relative incidence of various histopathological types of colorectal cancer. The vast majority of colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas.
Micrograph of colorectal adenocarcinoma, showing "dirty necrosis".
A diagram of a local resection of early stage colon cancer
A diagram of local surgery for rectal cancer
Colon and rectum cancer deaths per million persons in 2012

Development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).

- Colorectal cancer
Location and appearance of two example colorectal tumors

76 related topics with Alpha

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Effect of topical skin treatment with 5-fluorouracil cream after 30-day, before commencement of the healing phase (months two and three)

Fluorouracil

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Cytotoxic chemotherapy medication used to treat cancer.

Cytotoxic chemotherapy medication used to treat cancer.

Effect of topical skin treatment with 5-fluorouracil cream after 30-day, before commencement of the healing phase (months two and three)

By intravenous injection it is used for treatment of colorectal cancer, oesophageal cancer, stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer.

Oxaliplatin

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Oxaliplatin, sold under the brand name Eloxatin among others, is a cancer medication (platinum-based antineoplastic class) used to treat colorectal cancer.

Panitumumab

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Fully human monoclonal antibody specific to the epidermal growth factor receptor .

Fully human monoclonal antibody specific to the epidermal growth factor receptor .

Panitumumab was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the first time in September 2006, for "the treatment of EGFR-expressing metastatic colorectal cancer with disease progression" despite prior treatment.

Cholecalciferol (D3)

Vitamin D

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Group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and many other biological effects.

Group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and many other biological effects.

Cholecalciferol (D3)
Calcium regulation in the human body. The role of active vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, calcitriol) is shown in orange.
Global vitamin D serum levels among adults (nmol/L).
The photochemistry of vitamin D biosynthesis in animal and fungi
Thermal isomerization of previtaminD3 to vitamin D3
In the epidermal strata of the skin, vitamin D production is greatest in the stratum basale (colored red in the illustration) and stratum spinosum (colored light brown).
Liver hydroxylation of cholecalciferol to calcifediol
Kidney hydroxylation of calcifediol to calcitriol

Meta-analyses of observational studies have found reduced risk of cancer incidence related to vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D levels, particularly for colorectal cancer, although the strength of the associations was classified as weak.

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Capecitabine

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Capecitabine, sold under the brand name Xeloda among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat breast cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer.

A chest X-ray showing a tumor in the lung (marked by arrow)

Lung cancer

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Malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

Malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

A chest X-ray showing a tumor in the lung (marked by arrow)
Relationship between cigarette consumption per person (blue) and male lung cancer rates (dark yellow) in the US over the century
Risk of death from lung cancer is strongly correlated with smoking.
CT scan showing a cancerous tumor in the left lung
Primary pulmonary sarcoma in an asymptomatic 72-year-old male
Pie chart showing incidences of NSCLCs as compared to SCLCs shown at right, with fractions of smokers versus nonsmokers shown for each type
Cross section of a human lung: The white area in the upper lobe is cancer; the black areas are discoloration due to smoking.
Pneumonectomy specimen containing a squamous-cell carcinoma, seen as a white area near the bronchi
Brachytherapy (internal radiotherapy) for lung cancer given via the airway
Monoclonal antibodies used in the treatment of NSCLC and their mechanism of action https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110373
The main treatment arms of phase 3 clinical trials providing immunotherapy in the first line for patients with NSCLC https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110373
Overall survival in NSCLC patients treated with protocols incorporating immunotherapy in the first line for advanced or metastatic disease. Nasser NJ, Gorenberg M, Agbarya A. Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(11), 373;
Lung cancer, incidence, mortality, and survival, England 1971–2011
Stage IA and IB lung cancer
Stage IIA lung cancer
Stage IIB lung cancer
One option for stage IIB lung cancer, with T2b; but if tumor is within 2 cm of the carina, this is stage 3
Stage IIIA lung cancer
Stage IIIA lung cancer, if there is one feature from the list on each side
Stage IIIA lung cancer
Stage IIIB lung cancer
Stage IIIB lung cancer
Stage IV lung cancer
Trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers deaths per million persons in 2012
0–78–1213–3233–5354–8182–125126–286287–398399–527528–889

Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cancer among men for both incidence and mortality, and among women has the third-highest incidence (after breast and colorectal cancers) and second-highest mortality (after breast cancer).

TCF7L2

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Protein acting as a transcription factor that, in humans, is encoded by the TCF7L2 gene.

Protein acting as a transcription factor that, in humans, is encoded by the TCF7L2 gene.

TCF7L2 plays a role in colorectal cancer.

3D Medical Illustration depicting the TNM Stages in breast cancer

Cancer staging

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Process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.

Process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.

3D Medical Illustration depicting the TNM Stages in breast cancer
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Colon cancer: originally consisted of four stages: A, B, C, and D (the Dukes staging system). More recently, colon cancer staging is indicated either by the original A-D stages or by TNM.

Laparotomy

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Surgical procedure involving a surgical incision through the abdominal wall to gain access into the abdominal cavity.

Surgical procedure involving a surgical incision through the abdominal wall to gain access into the abdominal cavity.

In therapeutic laparotomy, a cause has been identified (e.g. colon cancer) and the operation is required for its therapy.

Crystal structure of MSH2:MSH3 heterodimer in complex with DNA . MSH2 and MSH3 bind to form MutSβ. This crystal structure shows MutSβ bound to DNA containing an insertion loop of three unpaired nucleotides.

MSH3

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Human homologue of the bacterial mismatch repair protein MutS that participates in the mismatch repair (MMR) system.

Human homologue of the bacterial mismatch repair protein MutS that participates in the mismatch repair (MMR) system.

Crystal structure of MSH2:MSH3 heterodimer in complex with DNA . MSH2 and MSH3 bind to form MutSβ. This crystal structure shows MutSβ bound to DNA containing an insertion loop of three unpaired nucleotides.

Deficient capacity for MMR is found in approximately 15% of colorectal cancers, and somatic mutations in the MSH3 gene can be found in nearly 50% of MMR-deficient colorectal cancers.