Combatant Status Review Tribunal

Combatant Status Review TribunalsCSRT(CSRT)CSR Tribunalmilitary tribunalsreview tribunalsTribunalstrying enemy combatants by military tribunal
The Combatant Status Review Tribunals (CSRT) were a set of tribunals for confirming whether detainees held by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp had been correctly designated as "enemy combatants".wikipedia
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Guantanamo Bay detention camp

Guantanamo BayGuantanamo Bay detainment campGuantanamo
The Combatant Status Review Tribunals (CSRT) were a set of tribunals for confirming whether detainees held by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp had been correctly designated as "enemy combatants".
Nearly 200 were released by mid-2004, before there had been any CSRTs (Combatant Status Review Tribunal) to review whether individuals were rightfully held as enemy combatants.

Office for the Administrative Review of the Detention of Enemy Combatants

Office for the Administrative Review of Detained Enemy CombatantsOARDECOARDEC board
The CSRTs were established July 7, 2004 by order of U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz after U.S. Supreme Court rulings in Hamdi v. Rumsfeld and Rasul v. Bush and were coordinated through the Office for the Administrative Review of the Detention of Enemy Combatants.
The Office for the Administrative Review of the Detention of Enemy Combatants, established in 2004 by the Bush administration's Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz, is a United States military body responsible for organising Combatant Status Review Tribunals (CSRT) for captives held in extrajudicial detention at the Guantanamo Bay detention camps in Cuba and annual Administrative Review Boards to review the threat level posed by deemed enemy combatants in order to make recommendations as to whether the U.S. needs to continue to hold them captive.

Enemy combatant

enemy combatantsenemyenemies
The Combatant Status Review Tribunals (CSRT) were a set of tribunals for confirming whether detainees held by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp had been correctly designated as "enemy combatants".

Murat Kurnaz

0006161ISN 061
Murat Kurnaz is a young Turkish citizen who was born in, and had grown up, in Germany. Some specific cases that call attention to what critics assert is a flawed nature of the CSRT procedure: Mustafa Ait Idir, Moazzam Begg, Murat Kurnaz, Feroz Abbasi, and Martin Mubanga.
The Combatant Status Review Tribunals began after the US Supreme Court decision in Rasul v. Bush that detainees had a right to due process and habeas corpus to challenge the grounds of their detention.

Detention (imprisonment)

detentiondetaineedetained
The Combatant Status Review Tribunals (CSRT) were a set of tribunals for confirming whether detainees held by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp had been correctly designated as "enemy combatants".
Before the Combatant Status Review Tribunals, created for reviewing the status of the Guantanamo detainees, the United States has argued that it is engaged in a legally recognizable armed conflict to which the laws of war apply, and that it therefore may hold captured al Qaeda and Taliban operatives throughout the duration of that conflict, without granting them a criminal trial.

Boumediene v. Bush

Boumediene04cv1166A 2008 decision
The Supreme Court of the United States found these tribunals to be unconstitutional in Boumediene v. Bush. The Supreme Court ruled on the outstanding habeas corpus appeals in Al Odah v. United States and Boumediene v. Bush (2008), discussed below.
As a result, the Department of Defense created the Combatant Status Review Tribunals.

Legal Advisor (Office for the Administrative Review of the Detention of Enemy Combatants)

Legal AdvisorJames CrisfieldJames R. Crisfield
James Crisfield, the legal advisor to the Tribunals, offered his legal opinion, that CSRT
A Legal Advisor and an Assistant Legal Advisor were part of the Office for the Administrative Review of Detained Enemy Combatants team tasked to conduct Combatant Status Review Tribunals of captives held in extrajudicial detention in the United States Guantanamo Bay detention camps in Cuba.

Hamdi v. Rumsfeld

HamdiYaser Hamdi v. Donald Rumsfeld
The CSRTs were established July 7, 2004 by order of U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz after U.S. Supreme Court rulings in Hamdi v. Rumsfeld and Rasul v. Bush and were coordinated through the Office for the Administrative Review of the Detention of Enemy Combatants.
In response, the United States Department of Defense created Combatant Status Review Tribunals, modeling them after the AR 190-8.

Military Commissions Act of 2006

Military Commissions ActMilitary Commission Act of 2006military commission
Through the Detainee Treatment Act of 2005 and the Military Commissions Act of 2006, in accordance with Bush administration goals, the United States Congress moved to limit, and then curtail the detainees' ability to file habeas corpus appeals.
It was drafted following the Supreme Court's decision on Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006), which ruled that the Combatant Status Review Tribunals (CSRT), as established by the United States Department of Defense, were procedurally flawed and unconstitutional, and did not provide protections under the Geneva Conventions.

Detainee Treatment Act

Detainee Treatment Act of 2005McCain Detainee AmendmentMcCain Amendment
Through the Detainee Treatment Act of 2005 and the Military Commissions Act of 2006, in accordance with Bush administration goals, the United States Congress moved to limit, and then curtail the detainees' ability to file habeas corpus appeals.

Rasul v. Bush

RasulRasul v BushShafiq Rasul v. George W. Bush
The CSRTs were established July 7, 2004 by order of U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz after U.S. Supreme Court rulings in Hamdi v. Rumsfeld and Rasul v. Bush and were coordinated through the Office for the Administrative Review of the Detention of Enemy Combatants. Joyce Hens Green, a US District Court judge for the District of Columbia, was assigned in 2004 to coordinate the nearly 60 habeas corpus cases filed following the US Supreme Court's decision in Rasul v. Bush (2004) that detainees had the right to due process and to habeas corpus challenges of their detention.
Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz responded by creating "Combatant Status Review Tribunals" to determine if detainees were unlawful combatants.

Hamdan v. Rumsfeld

HamdanHamdam v. RumsfeldHamdan v. Bush
In Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006), the Court ruled that the system of military commissions as established by the DoD was illegal and needed to be replaced by a system authorized by Congress.
Following the United States Supreme Court ruling in Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004), which established that detainees had the right of habeas corpus to challenge their detention, Hamdan was granted a review before the Combatant Status Review Tribunal.

Mustafa Ait Idir

Mustafa Ait Idr10004Idir, Mustafa Ait
Some specific cases that call attention to what critics assert is a flawed nature of the CSRT procedure: Mustafa Ait Idir, Moazzam Begg, Murat Kurnaz, Feroz Abbasi, and Martin Mubanga.
Washington DC based Judge Joyce Hens Green extensively quoted a transcript from Idir's Combatant Status Review Tribunal when she decided that the Guantanamo tribunals violated the US Constitution.

Unlawful combatant

unlawful combatantsunlawful enemy combatantsunlawful enemy combatant
do not have the discretion to determine that a detainee should be classified as a prisoner of war -- only whether the detainee satisfies the definition of "enemy combatant"
Using the authorization granted to him by Congress, on 13 November 2001, President Bush issued a Presidential Military Order: "[[Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism]]" which allowed "individuals ... to be detained, and, when tried, to be tried for violations of the laws of war and other applicable laws by military tribunals", where such individuals are members of the organization known as al Qa'ida; or has conspired or committed acts of international terrorism, or have as their aim to cause, injury to or adverse effects on the United States, its citizens, national security, foreign policy, or economy.

Moazzam Begg

Moazzem Begg00558Begg, Moazzam
Some specific cases that call attention to what critics assert is a flawed nature of the CSRT procedure: Mustafa Ait Idir, Moazzam Begg, Murat Kurnaz, Feroz Abbasi, and Martin Mubanga.
Following the United States Supreme Court decision in Rasul v. Bush (2004), in which the court ruled that detainees had habeas corpus rights and could challenge their detention, the US government quickly developed a system of Combatant Status Review Tribunals, Administrative Review Boards, and military commissions to provide the detainees with an "impartial tribunal" for reviewing their cases.

Martin Mubanga

10007ISN 10007Mubanga, Martin
Some specific cases that call attention to what critics assert is a flawed nature of the CSRT procedure: Mustafa Ait Idir, Moazzam Begg, Murat Kurnaz, Feroz Abbasi, and Martin Mubanga.
Subsequently, the US Department of Defense instituted Combatant Status Review Tribunals, to determine whether the captives met the new definition of an "enemy combatant."

Al Odah v. United States

Al-Odah v. United States02-CV-082802cv828
The Supreme Court ruled on the outstanding habeas corpus appeals in Al Odah v. United States and Boumediene v. Bush (2008), discussed below.
On July 7, 2004, the Department of Defense established Combatant Status Review Tribunals (CSRTs), military forums created as a substitute for the judicial process in U.S. civilian and military courts.

Joyce Hens Green

Joyce Green
Joyce Hens Green, a US District Court judge for the District of Columbia, was assigned in 2004 to coordinate the nearly 60 habeas corpus cases filed following the US Supreme Court's decision in Rasul v. Bush (2004) that detainees had the right to due process and to habeas corpus challenges of their detention.
(2) complaints stated a claim for violation of due process based on Combatant Status Review Tribunal's ("CSRT") extensive reliance on classified information in its resolution of "enemy combatant" status of detainees, the detainees' inability to review that information, and the prohibition of assistance by counsel jointly deprived detainees of sufficient notice of the factual bases for their detention and denied them a fair opportunity to challenge their incarceration;

No longer enemy combatant

No Longer Enemy Combatantshe never should have been confirmed as an enemy combatantcleared of suspicions of being an enemy combatant
No Longer Enemy Combatant (NLEC) is a term used by the U.S. military for a group of 38 Guantanamo detainees whose Combatant Status Review Tribunal determined they were not "enemy combatants".

Administrative Review Board

Assisting Military OfficerARBAssisting Military Officer (ARB)
From July 2004 through March 2005, military authorities conducted a one-time Combatant Status Review Tribunal for each detainee, to confirm whether they had been properly been classified as an "enemy combatant".

Anthony Kennedy

Justice KennedyKennedyAnthony M. Kennedy
Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote in the majority opinion:
In the ruling, Kennedy called the Combatant Status Review Tribunals "inadequate".

Guantanamo military commission

Guantanamo military commissionsOffice of Military Commissionsmilitary commissions

Tribunal

tribunalsadjudicative tribunalMixed Courts
The Combatant Status Review Tribunals (CSRT) were a set of tribunals for confirming whether detainees held by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp had been correctly designated as "enemy combatants".

United States Department of Defense

Department of DefenseU.S. Department of DefenseUS Department of Defense
The CSRTs were established July 7, 2004 by order of U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz after U.S. Supreme Court rulings in Hamdi v. Rumsfeld and Rasul v. Bush and were coordinated through the Office for the Administrative Review of the Detention of Enemy Combatants.