Combustibility and flammability

flammableflammabilitycombustiblenon-flammablecombustibilityinflammablenonflammablecombustible materialinflammabilityignition
A combustible material is something that can combust (burn) in air.wikipedia
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Dust explosion

dust explosionsexplosionFuel-air explosion
Finely divided wood dust can undergo explosive combustion and produce a blast wave.
Dust explosions can occur where any dispersed powdered combustible material is present in high-enough concentrations in the atmosphere or other oxidizing gaseous medium, such as pure oxygen.

Flash point

flash-pointflashpoint
For example, in the United States flammable liquids, by definition, have a flash point below 100 F—where combustible liquids have a flash point above 100 F. Flammable solids are solids that are readily combustible, or may cause or contribute to fire through friction.
The flash point is a descriptive characteristic that is used to distinguish between flammable fuels, such as petrol (gasoline in the US), and combustible fuels, such as diesel.

Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals

Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of ChemicalsGlobally Harmonized SystemGHS
The technical definitions vary between countries so the United Nations created the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals, which defines the flash point temperature of flammable liquids as between 0 and 140 F and combustible liquids between 140 F and 200 F.

Fire

firesfire damageflame
Flammability is the ease with which a combustible substance can be ignited, causing fire or combustion or even an explosion.
Fires start when a flammable or a combustible material, in combination with a sufficient quantity of an oxidizer such as oxygen gas or another oxygen-rich compound (though non-oxygen oxidizers exist), is exposed to a source of heat or ambient temperature above the flash point for the fuel/oxidizer mix, and is able to sustain a rate of rapid oxidation that produces a chain reaction.

Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
Ethanol is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor.

Occupancy

Vacantvacanciesoccupancies
For instance, changing an occupancy by altering the flammability of the contents requires the owner of a building to apply for a building permit to make sure that the overall fire protection design basis of the facility can take the change into account.
Because automobile gasoline is flammable, an occupancy separation is often required between the two should there be a vehicle fire.

Isopropyl alcohol

isopropanol2-propanolpropan-2-ol
Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol; commonly called isopropanol or 2-propanol) is a colorless, flammable chemical compound (chemical formula CH 3 CHOHCH 3 ) with a strong odor.

Polyurethane

urethanepolyurethanesurethanes
In 1975, California began implementing Technical Bulletin 117 (TB 117), which required that materials such as polyurethane foam used to fill furniture be able to withstand a small open flame, equivalent to a candle, for at least 12 seconds.
In 1967, urethane-modified polyisocyanurate rigid foams were introduced, offering even better thermal stability and flammability resistance.

Methanol

methyl alcoholwood alcoholCH 3 OH
It is a light, volatile, colorless, flammable liquid with a distinctive odor similar to that of ethanol (drinking alcohol).

Carbon tetrachloride

CCl 4 tetrachloromethanecarbon tetrachloride ()
It has practically no flammability at lower temperatures.

Flame retardant

flame retardantsflame-retardantflame-resistant
In polyurethane foam, furniture manufacturers typically meet TB 117 with additive halogenated organic flame retardants.
Flame retardants are typically added to industrial and consumer products to meet flammability standards for furniture, textiles, electronics, and building products like insulation.

Flammable liquid

flammableaccelerantflammability
For example, in the United States flammable liquids, by definition, have a flash point below 100 F—where combustible liquids have a flash point above 100 F. Flammable solids are solids that are readily combustible, or may cause or contribute to fire through friction.

Hazardous Materials Identification System

HMIS Color BarHMIS
The US Government uses the Hazardous Materials Identification System (HMIS) standard for flammability ratings, as do many US regulatory agencies, and also the US National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).
The four bars are color-coded, using the modern color bar symbols with blue indicating the level of health hazard, red for flammability, orange for a physical hazard, and white for Personal Protection.

Acetone

(CH 3 ) 2 COacetonylCH 3 COCH 3
Although itself flammable, acetone is used extensively as a solvent for the safe transportation and storage of acetylene, which cannot be safely pressurized as a pure compound.

David Heimbach

When it became apparent that the risk-benefit ratio of this approach was unfavorable and industry had used falsified documentation (i.e. see David Heimbach) for the use of flame retardants, California modified TB 117 to require that fabric covering upholstered furniture meet a smolder test replacing the open flame test.
The series led to a number of results as delineated in the letter "To the jury" when their work was proposed for consideration of the Pulitzer Prize: A reform of California's standards of flammability, activity by the U.S. Senate, increased transparency, and changes in the industry.

Passive fire protection

passivecompartmentalisationfire protection
In other words, if a portion of a building were designed as an apartment, one could not suddenly load it with flammable liquids and turn it into a gas storage facility, because the fire load and smoke development in that one apartment would be so immense as to overtax the active fire protection as well as the passive fire protection means for the building.

Explosive

explosiveshigh explosiveHE
In contrast, some materials are merely combustible or flammable if they burn without exploding.

Propane

propane gaspropane tankliquid propane
Such substitution is widely prohibited or discouraged in motor vehicle air conditioning systems, on the grounds that using flammable hydrocarbons in systems originally designed to carry non-flammable refrigerant presents a significant risk of fire or explosion.

Polystyrene

expanded polystyrenestyrofoampolystyrene foam
Polystyrene is classified according to DIN4102 as a "B3" product, meaning highly flammable or "Easily Ignited."

Flammability limit

lower explosive limitexplosive limitupper explosive limit

Phlogiston theory

phlogistondephlogisticateddephlogisticated air
Common sense (and indeed scientific consensus until the mid-1700s) would seem to suggest that material "disappears" when burned, as only the ash is left.

Antoine Lavoisier

LavoisierAntoine-Laurent LavoisierAntoine Laurent Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier, one of the pioneers in these early insights, stated that Nothing is lost, nothing is created, everything is transformed, which would later be known as the law of conservation of mass.

Conservation of mass

law of conservation of massmass conservationconservation of matter
Antoine Lavoisier, one of the pioneers in these early insights, stated that Nothing is lost, nothing is created, everything is transformed, which would later be known as the law of conservation of mass.

HAZMAT Class 4 Flammable solids

Flammable solidsDangerous when WetDivision 4.2
For example, in the United States flammable liquids, by definition, have a flash point below 100 F—where combustible liquids have a flash point above 100 F. Flammable solids are solids that are readily combustible, or may cause or contribute to fire through friction.