Combustion

burningignitionincomplete combustioncombustiblecombustedburncombustburnscombustion gascombustion reaction
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.wikipedia
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Redox

oxidationoxidizedreduction
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
For example, during the combustion of wood, electrons are transferred from carbon atoms in the wood to oxygen atoms in the air.

Smoke

Smoke (web series)fumefumes
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Smoke is a collection of airborne particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass. It is commonly an unwanted by-product of fires (including stoves, candles, internal combustion engines, oil lamps, and fireplaces), but may also be used for pest control (fumigation), communication (smoke signals), defensive and offensive capabilities in the military (smoke screen), cooking, or smoking (tobacco, cannabis, etc.).

Fuel

fuelsenergy-richFuel type
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking, or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion.

Fire

firesfire damageflame
Combustion in a fire produces a flame, and the heat produced can make combustion self-sustaining. Combustion (fire) was the first controlled chemical reaction discovered by humans, in the form of campfires and bonfires, and continues to be the main method to produce energy for humanity.
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products.

Solid fuel

solid-fuelsolid-fueledsolid-fuelled
Solid fuels, such as wood and coal, first undergo endothermic pyrolysis to produce gaseous fuels whose combustion then supplies the heat required to produce more of them.
Solid fuel refers to various forms of solid material that can be burnt to release energy, providing heat and light through the process of combustion.

Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygen
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke. A simple example can be seen in the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen into water vapor, a reaction commonly used to fuel rocket engines.
One of the first known experiments on the relationship between combustion and air was conducted by the 2nd century BCE Greek writer on mechanics, Philo of Byzantium.

Radical (chemistry)

free radicalradicalfree radicals
Combustion is often a complicated sequence of elementary radical reactions.
Radicals are important in combustion, atmospheric chemistry, polymerization, plasma chemistry, biochemistry, and many other chemical processes.

Rocket engine

rocket motorrocketthrusters
A simple example can be seen in the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen into water vapor, a reaction commonly used to fuel rocket engines.
Most rocket engines use the combustion of reactive chemicals to supply the necessary energy, but non-combusting forms such as cold gas thrusters and nuclear thermal rockets also exist.

Chemical reaction

reactionchemical reactionsreactions
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
It postulated the existence of a fire-like element called "phlogiston", which was contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion.

Hydrogen

HH 2 hydrogen gas
A simple example can be seen in the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen into water vapor, a reaction commonly used to fuel rocket engines. However, complete combustion is almost impossible to achieve, since the chemical equilibrium is not necessarily reached, or may contain unburnt products such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen and even carbon (soot or ash).
At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H 2.

Pyrolysis

pyrolyticpyrolyzedMethane pyrolysis
Solid fuels, such as wood and coal, first undergo endothermic pyrolysis to produce gaseous fuels whose combustion then supplies the heat required to produce more of them.
It differs from other processes like combustion and hydrolysis in that it usually does not involve the addition of other reagents such as oxygen (O 2, in combustion) or water (in hydrolysis).

Smouldering

smolderingsmoldersmoulder
Combustion is often hot enough that incandescent light in the form of either glowing or a flame is produced.
Smouldering (British English) or smoldering (American English; [[American and British English spelling differences#Miscellaneous spelling differences|see spelling differences]]) is the slow, low-temperature, flameless form of combustion, sustained by the heat evolved when oxygen directly attacks the surface of a condensed-phase fuel.

Heat of combustion

calorific valueEnthalpy of combustionlower heating value
The heat of combustion is approximately -418 kJ per mole of O 2 used up in the combustion reaction, and can be estimated from the elemental composition of the fuel.
The calorific value is the total energy released as heat when a substance undergoes complete combustion with oxygen under standard conditions.

Soot

black smokecharcoal blackcarbon black
However, complete combustion is almost impossible to achieve, since the chemical equilibrium is not necessarily reached, or may contain unburnt products such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen and even carbon (soot or ash).
Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.

Incineration

incineratorincineratorsincinerated
Combustion is also used to destroy (incinerate) waste, both nonhazardous and hazardous.
Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.

Nitrogen

NN 2 dinitrogen
Any combustion at high temperatures in atmospheric air, which is 78 percent nitrogen, will also create small amounts of several nitrogen oxides, commonly referred to as, since the combustion of nitrogen is thermodynamically favored at high, but not low temperatures.
The fact that there was a component of air that does not support combustion was clear to Rutherford, although he was not aware that it was an element.

Rocket

rocketsrocketryrocket scientist
Combustion is also currently the only reaction used to power rockets.
Chemical rockets are the most common type of high power rocket, typically creating a high speed exhaust by the combustion of fuel with an oxidizer.

Exhaust gas

emissionsexhaustemission
Further improvements are achievable by catalytic after-burning devices (such as catalytic converters) or by the simple partial return of the exhaust gases into the combustion process.
Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.

Flame

Flamesflamingaflame
Combustion in a fire produces a flame, and the heat produced can make combustion self-sustaining. Combustion is often hot enough that incandescent light in the form of either glowing or a flame is produced.
This is because there is a lack of oxygen in the room and therefore there is incomplete combustion and the flame temperature is low, often just 600 to 850 C. This means that a lot of carbon monoxide is formed (which is a flammable gas) which is when there is greatest risk of backdraft.

NOx

NO x nitrogen oxidesnitrogen oxide
Nitrogen is not considered to be a combustible substance when oxygen is the oxidant, but small amounts of various nitrogen oxides (commonly designated [[NOx|]] species) form when the air is the oxidant. Nitrogen does not take part in combustion, but at high temperatures some nitrogen will be converted to [[NOx#Thermal|]] (mostly [[Nitric oxide|]], with much smaller amounts of [[Nitrogen dioxide|]]).
gases are usually produced from the reaction among nitrogen and oxygen during combustion of fuels, such as hydrocarbons, in air; especially at high temperatures, such as occur in car engines.

Campfire

campfirescamp firecampfire permit
Combustion (fire) was the first controlled chemical reaction discovered by humans, in the form of campfires and bonfires, and continues to be the main method to produce energy for humanity.
With the proliferation of packaged food, it is quite likely that plastics will be incinerated as well, a practice that not only produces toxic fumes but will also leave polluted ashes behind because of incomplete combustion at too-low open fire temperatures.

Fuel efficiency

fuel consumptionfuel economyfuel efficient
HVAC contractors, firemen and engineers use combustion analyzers to test the efficiency of a burner during the combustion process.
Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application fuel efficiency, especially fossil fuel power plants or industries dealing with combustion, such as ammonia production during the Haber process.

Carbon monoxide poisoning

carbon monoxideCarbon monoxide inhalationcarbon monoxide toxicity
People who survive severe CO poisoning may suffer long-term health problems.
It is produced during incomplete burning of organic matter.

Internal combustion engine

engineinternal combustioninternal combustion engines
The quality of combustion can be improved by the designs of combustion devices, such as burners and internal combustion engines.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.

Nitrogen dioxide

NO 2 NO2Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
Nitrogen does not take part in combustion, but at high temperatures some nitrogen will be converted to [[NOx#Thermal|]] (mostly [[Nitric oxide|]], with much smaller amounts of [[Nitrogen dioxide|]]).
Nitrogen dioxide is formed in most combustion processes using air as the oxidant.