Argentine president Carlos Menem presiding over an Argentine Air Force ceremony for the Falklands War in May 1997.
Governor General of Australia The Lord Gowrie (right) signing the declaration of war against Japan with Prime Minister John Curtin (left) looking on. (8 December 1941)
President Alexander Lukashenko wearing the official uniform of the commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Belarus.
Chairman of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina Alija Izetbegović (right) meeting with US president Bill Clinton (left) in 1997 in Tuzla.
King George VI inspects a Royal Canadian Navy guard of honour during the 1939 royal tour of Canada.
King Christian IV on board his flagship during the 1644 Battle of Colberger Heide, by Wilhelm Marstrand. The king's personal commitment during the battle, are memorialized in first lines of the Danish royal anthem.
C. G. E. Mannerheim, the Marshal of Finland, as the commander-in-chief in 1941 during the Continuation War
Guyanese Commander in Chief rank insignia
The ceremony of passing the Cheget (i.e. the nuclear briefcase) from Dmitry Medvedev's military aide to Vladimir Putin's military aide during the 2012 presidential inauguration.
Current President of South Korea, President Yoon Suk-yeol
King Felipe VI in uniform of Captain General of the Navy at the Naval NCO Academy in 2014.
Mareşal Mustafa Kemal Pasha (center), the president of Turkey with other generals of the Turkish Armed Forces in 1925.
U.S. President Barack Obama in his capacity as commander-in-chief, salutes the caskets of 18 individual soldiers killed in Afghanistan in 2009.
Hugo Chavez, the president of Venezuela, dressed in military garb in August 2006.
New recruits standing in front of the Reichstag building, before taking the Bundeswehr oath. In the light of Prussian militarism and due to its infamous history of the 20th century; Germany of today puts a strong emphasis on having armed forces compatible with a parliamentary system.
Werner von Blomberg (left) saluting Adolf Hitler (right) with a baton at the 1937 Nuremberg Rally.
5-stars Flag-Insignia of Commander-in-Chief of Tatmadaw
4-stars Flag-Insignia of Deputy Commander-in-Chief of Tatmadaw
The Royal insignia (distinctief) worn by King Willem-Alexander, instead of a regular military rank, whenever he wears a Dutch military uniform.
Flag of the supreme commander
The Swedish monarch (King Carl XVI Gustaf) is no longer the commander-in-chief of the Swedish Armed Forces, although he continues to receive treatment befitting a head of state.
The epaulet for the wartime-only office and rank of General.

Informal term for the most prominent political leader in China.

- Paramount leader

However, beginning in 1993, during the tenure of Jiang Zemin as CMC Chairman and General Secretary of the Communist Party, it has been standard practice to have the president, the CMC chairman, and the CCP general secretary to be normally held by the same person; although the slight differences in the start and end of terms for those respective offices means that there is some overlap between an occupant and his predecessor.

- Commander-in-chief

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Head of state

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Public persona who officially embodies a state in its unity and legitimacy.

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Grassalkovich Palace in Bratislava is the seat of the President of Slovakia.
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George V, Emperor of India, and Empress Mary at the Delhi Durbar, 1911.
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Albert II, King of the Belgians inspecting troops on Belgium's national day in 2011
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Four generations of Danish kings in 1903: King Christian IX (left), Christian (X) (back), Frederick (VIII) (right), and Frederick (IX) (front)
The National Monument to Emperor Wilhelm I in Berlin, Germany, dedicated 1897, nearly 10 years after his death. The monument was destroyed by the communist government in 1950.
Title page of 1550 Italian edition of Machiavelli's The Prince
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Frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan (1651)

Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead (such as the British monarch) or concurrently the head of government and more (such as the President of the United States, who is also commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces).

However, since 1993, as a matter of convention, the presidency has been held simultaneously by the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, the top leader in the one party system.

Supreme Military Command of the People's Republic of China

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Throughout the history of the People's Republic of China, the position that effectively reigned as the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces changed from time to time.

The officeholder is usually the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) as well as the paramount leader.

Chinese Communist Party

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Founding and sole ruling party of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Founding and sole ruling party of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Site of the first CCP Congress, in the former Shanghai French Concession
Flag of the HistoryChinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army
Mao Zedong declared the establishment of the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949.
Chinese communists celebrate Joseph Stalin's birthday, 1949.
A temporary monument displayed in Changsha, Hunan Province, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the CCP's founding
A monument dedicated to Karl Marx (left) and Friedrich Engels (right) in Shanghai
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The 18th National Congress, convened in November 2012
Front cover of the Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party
Xi Jinping (second from left) with Enrique Peña Nieto (second from right), the former President of Mexico and a leading member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party
Badge given to party members

Because of these posts, the party leader is seen as the country's paramount leader.

Unlike the collective leadership ideal of other party organs, the CMC chairman acts as commander-in-chief with full authority to appoint or dismiss top military officers at will.