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Commelinaceae

dayflower familyCommelinacéesJunci
It comprises five families: Commelinaceae, Haemodoraceae, Hanguanaceae, Philydraceae, and Pontederiaceae. The older Cronquist system of 1981, which was based purely on morphological data, placed the order in subclass Commelinidae of class Liliopsida and included the families Commelinaceae, Mayacaceae, Rapateaceae and Xyridaceae. All the families combined contain over 885 species in about 70 genera; the majority of species are in the Commelinaceae.
In less formal contexts, the group is referred to as the dayflower family or spiderwort family. It is one of five families in the order Commelinales and by far the largest of these with about 731 known species in 41 genera.

Hanguana

It comprises five families: Commelinaceae, Haemodoraceae, Hanguanaceae, Philydraceae, and Pontederiaceae. This is unchanged from the APG III of 2009 and the APG II of 2003, but different from the older APG system of 1998, which did not include Hanguanaceae.
The APG IV system of 2016 recognizes such a family and places it in the order Commelinales, in the clade commelinids, in the monocots (unchanged from the APG III system of 2009 and the APG II system of 2003.

Pontederiaceae

water hyacinth familyPontederiacées
It comprises five families: Commelinaceae, Haemodoraceae, Hanguanaceae, Philydraceae, and Pontederiaceae.
The APG IV system of 2016 (unchanged from the APG III system of 2009, the APG II system of 2003 and the APG system of 1998) places the family in the order Commelinales, in the commelinid clade, in the monocots.

Zingiberales

Zingiberales sp.zingiberaleans
The order's closest relatives are in the Zingiberales, which includes ginger, bananas, cardamom, and others.
The Zingiberales are flowering plants forming one of four orders in the commelinids clade of monocots, together with its sister order, Commelinales.

Philydraceae

It comprises five families: Commelinaceae, Haemodoraceae, Hanguanaceae, Philydraceae, and Pontederiaceae.
The APG II system, of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system, of 1998), does recognize such a family and places it in the order Commelinales, in the clade commelinids, in the monocots.

Haemodoraceae

bloodwort family
It comprises five families: Commelinaceae, Haemodoraceae, Hanguanaceae, Philydraceae, and Pontederiaceae.
The APG IV system, of 2016 (unchanged from the earlier APG systems of 2009, 2003 and 1998), also recognizes this family and places it in the order Commelinales, in the clade commelinids, in the monocots.

Cronquist system

CronquistCronquist classification (1981)broad concept
The older Cronquist system of 1981, which was based purely on morphological data, placed the order in subclass Commelinidae of class Liliopsida and included the families Commelinaceae, Mayacaceae, Rapateaceae and Xyridaceae.
Order Commelinales

Mayaca

Mayaca people
The older Cronquist system of 1981, which was based purely on morphological data, placed the order in subclass Commelinidae of class Liliopsida and included the families Commelinaceae, Mayacaceae, Rapateaceae and Xyridaceae.
The Cronquist system, of 1981, also recognised such a family and placed it in the order Commelinales in the subclass Commelinidae.

Commelinidae

The older Cronquist system of 1981, which was based purely on morphological data, placed the order in subclass Commelinidae of class Liliopsida and included the families Commelinaceae, Mayacaceae, Rapateaceae and Xyridaceae.
superorder Commelinanae

APG IV system

APG IV (2016)APG IVAPG IV classification system
According to the most recent classification scheme, the APG IV of 2016, the order includes five families:
Commelinales Mirb. ex Bercht. & J.Presl

Liliopsida

Burmannia disticha
The older Cronquist system of 1981, which was based purely on morphological data, placed the order in subclass Commelinidae of class Liliopsida and included the families Commelinaceae, Mayacaceae, Rapateaceae and Xyridaceae.
superorder Commelinanae

APG III system

APG III classification systemAPG III2009
This is unchanged from the APG III of 2009 and the APG II of 2003, but different from the older APG system of 1998, which did not include Hanguanaceae.
order Commelinales

Xyridaceae

yellow-eyed-grass familyXyridacéesXyrideae
The older Cronquist system of 1981, which was based purely on morphological data, placed the order in subclass Commelinidae of class Liliopsida and included the families Commelinaceae, Mayacaceae, Rapateaceae and Xyridaceae.
The Cronquist system of 1981 also recognized such a family and placed it in the order Commelinales in the subclass Commelinidae in class Liliopsida in division Magnoliophyta.

APG system

APG1998APG I
This is unchanged from the APG III of 2009 and the APG II of 2003, but different from the older APG system of 1998, which did not include Hanguanaceae.
order Commelinales

Rapateaceae

The older Cronquist system of 1981, which was based purely on morphological data, placed the order in subclass Commelinidae of class Liliopsida and included the families Commelinaceae, Mayacaceae, Rapateaceae and Xyridaceae.
The Cronquist system of 1981 also recognized this family and placed it in the order Commelinales in the subclass Commelinidae in class Liliopsida in division Magnoliophyta.

APG II system

APG II2003APG II 2003
This is unchanged from the APG III of 2009 and the APG II of 2003, but different from the older APG system of 1998, which did not include Hanguanaceae.
order Commelinales

Botanical name

specific epithetepithetspecific name
Commelinales is the botanical name of an order of flowering plants.

Flowering plant

Angiospermsflowering plantsangiosperm
Commelinales is the botanical name of an order of flowering plants.

Genus

generageneric namegeneric
All the families combined contain over 885 species in about 70 genera; the majority of species are in the Commelinaceae.

Synapomorphy and apomorphy

derivedsynapomorphiessynapomorphy
Plants in the order share a number of synapomorphies that tie them together, such as a lack of mycorrhizal associations and tapetal raphides.

Mycorrhiza

mycorrhizalectomycorrhizalmycorrhizal fungi
Plants in the order share a number of synapomorphies that tie them together, such as a lack of mycorrhizal associations and tapetal raphides.

Tapetum (botany)

tapetumtapetal celltapetal cells
Plants in the order share a number of synapomorphies that tie them together, such as a lack of mycorrhizal associations and tapetal raphides.

Raphide

raphidesraphide crystals
Plants in the order share a number of synapomorphies that tie them together, such as a lack of mycorrhizal associations and tapetal raphides.

Cretaceous

Cretaceous PeriodEarly CretaceousLate Cretaceous
Estimates differ as to when the Comminales evolved, but most suggest an origin and diversification sometime during the mid- to late Cretaceous.

Ginger

ginger rootZingiberis Rhizomagingers
The order's closest relatives are in the Zingiberales, which includes ginger, bananas, cardamom, and others.