Commercial law

Iustitia ("Lady Justice") is a symbolic personification of the coercive power of a tribunal: a sword representing state authority, scales representing an objective standard and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial.

Body of law that applies to the rights, relations, and conduct of persons and business engaged in commerce, merchandising, trade, and sales.

- Commercial law

348 related topics


Private law

That part of a civil law legal system which is part of the jus commune that involves relationships between individuals, such as the law of contracts and torts , and the law of obligations (as it is called in civil legal systems).

Legal systems of the world. Civil law based systems are in turquoise.

Commercial law


System of rules that are created and are enforceable by social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior, with its precise definition a matter of longstanding debate.

Iustitia ("Lady Justice") is a symbolic personification of the coercive power of a tribunal: a sword representing state authority, scales representing an objective standard and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial.
Classic symbol of law in heraldry.
"The Law" sculpture at interior of the Presidential Palace in Helsinki, Finland.
Bentham's utilitarian theories remained dominant in law until the 20th century.
King Hammurabi is revealed the code of laws by the Mesopotamian sun god Shamash, also revered as the god of justice.
The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution for a country, containing 444 articles, 12 schedules, numerous amendments and 117,369 words.
Colour-coded map of the legal systems around the world, showing civil, common law, religious, customary and mixed legal systems. Common law systems are shaded pink, and civil law systems are shaded blue/turquoise.
Emperor Justinian (527–565) of the Byzantine Empire who ordered the codification of Corpus Juris Civilis.
First page of the 1804 edition of the Napoleonic Code.
King John of England signs Magna Carta.
A trial in the Ottoman Empire, 1879, when religious law applied under the Mecelle.
The Chamber of the House of Representatives, the lower house in the National Diet of Japan.
The G20 meetings are composed of representatives of each country's executive branch.
Officers of the South African Police Service in Johannesburg, 2010.
The mandarins were powerful bureaucrats in imperial China (photograph shows a Qing dynasty official with mandarin square visible).
In civil law systems such as those of Italy, France, Germany, Spain and Greece, there is a distinct category of notary, a legally trained public official, compensated by the parties to a transaction. This is a 16th-century painting of such a notary by Flemish painter Quentin Massys.
A march in Washington, D.C., during the civil rights movement in 1963.
Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations system was agreed during World War II.
The Italian lawyer Sir Alberico Gentili, the Father of international law.
The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
A depiction of a 17th-century criminal trial, for witchcraft in Salem.
The famous Carbolic Smoke Ball advertisement to cure influenza was held to be a unilateral contract.
The "McLibel case" was the longest-running case in UK history. It involved publishing a pamphlet that criticised McDonald's restaurants.
A painting of the South Sea Bubble, one of the world's first ever speculations and crashes, led to strict regulation on share trading.
The Court of Chancery, London, England, early 19th century.
A trade union protest by UNISON while on strike.
The New York Stock Exchange trading floor after the Wall Street Crash of 1929, before tougher banking regulation was introduced.
Richard Posner, one of the Chicago School, until 2014 ran a blog with Bank of Sweden Prize winning economist Gary Becker.
Max Weber in 1917, Weber began his career as a lawyer, and is regarded as one of the founders of sociology and sociology of law.

Private law deals with legal disputes between individuals and/or organisations in areas such as contracts, property, torts/delicts and commercial law.


Legally enforceable agreement that creates, defines, and governs mutual rights and obligations among its parties.

Bill of sale of a male slave and a building in Shuruppak, Sumerian tablet, circa 2600 BC
The Carbolic Smoke Ball offer
A contract from the Tang dynasty that records the purchase of a 15-year-old slave for six bolts of plain silk and five Chinese coins
German marriage contract, 1521 between {{Interlanguage link multi|Gottfried Werner von Zimmern|de}} and Apollonia von Henneberg-Römhild
Thomas Boylston to Thomas Jefferson, May 1786, Maritime Insurance Premiums
Fire insurance contract of 1796

Contracts are widely used in commercial law, and form the legal foundation for transactions across the world.

Financial law

Law and regulation of the insurance, derivatives, commercial banking, capital markets and investment management sectors.

Regulation of gene expression by a hormone receptor

Financial law forms a substantial portion of commercial law, and notably a substantial proportion of the global economy, and legal billables are dependent on sound and clear legal policy pertaining to financial transactions.

Civil code

Codification of private law relating to property, family, and obligations.

Countries with a collection of laws known formally or informally as 'Civil Code'
The first edition of the Swiss Civil Code (around 1907). In 1911, it became the first civil code to include commercial law (Swiss Code of Obligations).

Commercial law, corporate law and civil procedure are usually codified separately.


Trade involves the transfer of goods and services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.

Two traders in 16th century Germany
The San Juan de Dios Market in Guadalajara, Jalisco
The Liberty to Trade as Buttressed by National Law (1909) by George Howard Earle, Jr.
The caduceus, traditionally associated which Mercury (the Roman patron-god of merchants), continues in use as a symbol of commerce.
Ancient Etruscan "aryballoi" terracota vessels unearthed in the 1860s at Bolshaya Bliznitsa tumulus near Phanagoria, South Russia (formerly part of the Bosporan Kingdom of Cimmerian Bosporus, present-day Taman Peninsula); on exhibit at the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg.
A map of the Silk Road trade route between Europe and Asia.
Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade network in the Indian Ocean
Tajadero or axe money used as currency in Mesoamerica. It had a fixed worth of 8,000 cacao seeds, which were also used as currency.
A map showing the main trade routes for goods within late medieval Europe.
Danzig in the 17th century, a port of the Hanseatic League
Berber trade with Timbuktu, 1853.
A Roman denarius

Importing firms voluntarily adhere to fair trade standards or governments may enforce them through a combination of employment and commercial law.

Republic of Ancona

Medieval commune and maritime republic notable for its economic development and maritime trade, particularly with the Byzantine Empire and Eastern Mediterranean, although somewhat confined by Venetian supremacy on the sea.

Republic of Ancona in the 15th century – borders and castles
Trade routes and warehouses of the maritime republic of Ancona
Republic of Ancona in the 15th century – borders and castles
Grazioso Benincasa, Portolan chart of Mediterranean sea
Portrait of Ciriacus of Ancona, the navigator-archaeologist (1459).
Francesco Podesti, Siege of Ancona of 1174
Francesco Podesti, Stamira
Port of Ancona (XVI century).
Benvenuto Stracca, De mercatura.
Carlo Crivelli, Madonna con Bambino, Civic Art Gallery of Ancona
Byzantine sculptures inside the cathedral
Prothyrum and bell tower of the cathedral
Interior of the cathedral, with Byzantine plan (Greek cross)
Cathedral, aerial view
Church of Santa Maria di Portonovo, whose plan is a fusion of a Byzantine Greek cross and a romanesque basilica
Loggia dei Mercanti, Giorgio da Sebenico (Adriatic Renaissance)
Church of San Francesco alle Scale, Giorgio da Sebenico (Adriatic Renaissance)
Romanesque church of Santa Maria della Piazza

The Ancona trade in the Levant was the promoter of the birth of commercial law: the jurist Benvenuto Stracca (Ancona, 1509–1579) published in 1553 the treatise De mercatura seu mercatore tractats; it was one of the first, if not the first, legal imprint dealing specifically with commercial law.

Tzipi Livni

Israeli politician, diplomat, and lawyer.

Livni and French FM Douste-Blazy
Livni and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, 2009
Livni meets with President George W. Bush
Youth for Tzipi Livni party 2009.
Kadima youth activists, 2009
Livni declares victory in 2009 elections
Livni upon assuming the role of Leader of the Opposition in the Knesset
Livni visiting a medical center in Ashkelon with members of Kadima
Livni touring the site of a kindergarten hit by bombs from Gaza
Tzipi Livni at Biyalik Rogazin
Livni and British Foreign Secretary William Hague
Livni, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, and Palestinian negotiator Saeb Erekat announce the resumption of peace talks
Livni briefs The Israel Project
Zionist Union campaign poster
Livni at Pride event in Be'er Sheva, 2015

She practiced at a private firm for about ten years, specializing in commercial law, public law, and real estate law, before entering public life in 1996.


Activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products .

Fish for sale in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with a price tag of 395 Bangladeshi taka per kilogram.
Offices in the Los Angeles Downtown Financial District
Mexican Stock Exchange in Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City

Most legal jurisdictions specify the forms of ownership that a business can take, creating a body of commercial law for each type.

Accession (property law)

Accession has different definitions depending upon its application.

Iustitia ("Lady Justice") is a symbolic personification of the coercive power of a tribunal: a sword representing state authority, scales representing an objective standard and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial.

In commercial law, accession includes goods that are physically united with other goods in such a manner that the identity of the original goods is not lost.