Commissioner of Baseball

Commissionerbaseball commissionerorganized baseballMLB CommissionerCommissioner of Major League BaseballMajor League Baseball CommissionerNational CommissionCommissioner's OfficeOffice of the Commissioner of BaseballLeague Commissioner
The Commissioner of Baseball is the chief executive of Major League Baseball (MLB) and the associated Minor League Baseball (MiLB) – a constellation of leagues and clubs known as organized baseball.wikipedia
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Major League Baseball

MLBMajor LeagueMajor Leagues
The Commissioner of Baseball is the chief executive of Major League Baseball (MLB) and the associated Minor League Baseball (MiLB) – a constellation of leagues and clubs known as organized baseball.
After cooperating but remaining legally separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000.

Minor League Baseball

minor leagueClass Aminor leagues
The Commissioner of Baseball is the chief executive of Major League Baseball (MLB) and the associated Minor League Baseball (MiLB) – a constellation of leagues and clubs known as organized baseball.
Most are members of the umbrella organization known as Minor League Baseball (MiLB), which operates under the Commissioner of Baseball within the scope of organized baseball.

Rob Manfred

Commissioner Manfred
The current commissioner is Rob Manfred, who assumed office on January 25, 2015.
Robert D. Manfred Jr. (born September 28, 1958) is an American lawyer and business executive who is the tenth and current Commissioner of Baseball.

Kenesaw Mountain Landis

Judge LandisCommissioner LandisLandis
Having agreed to appoint only non-baseball men to the National Commission, the owners tapped federal judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis, an ardent baseball fan, to serve as the reformed commission's chairman.
Kenesaw Mountain Landis (November 20, 1866 – November 25, 1944) was an American jurist who served as a federal judge from 1905 to 1922 and as the first Commissioner of Baseball from 1920 until his death.

Chicago White Sox

White SoxChicago White StockingsCWS
In particular, Chicago White Sox owner Charles Comiskey was incensed at what he perceived to be Johnson's indifference to his suspicions that the 1919 World Series had been thrown.
In response, Major League Baseball's new Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis banned the players from Major League Baseball for life.

Black Sox Scandal

Black SoxBlack Sox" scandal1919 Black Sox scandal
The event that would eventually lead to the appointment of a single Commissioner of Baseball was the Black Sox Scandal — perhaps the worst of a series of incidents in the late 1910s that jeopardized the integrity of the game.
The fallout from the scandal resulted in the appointment of Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis as the first Commissioner of Baseball, granting him absolute control over the sport in order to restore its integrity.

Shoeless Joe Jackson

Joe JacksonShoeless" Joe JacksonSay it ain't so, Joe
Following a trial, the eight players suspected of involvement in the fix were acquitted, including Buck Weaver and superstar Shoeless Joe Jackson.
As a result of Jackson's association with the scandal, Kenesaw Mountain Landis, Major League Baseball's first commissioner, banned Jackson from playing after the season despite exceptional play in the 1919 World Series, leading both teams in several statistical categories and setting a World Series record with 12 base hits.

1919 World Series

1919World SeriesChicago Black Sox
In particular, Chicago White Sox owner Charles Comiskey was incensed at what he perceived to be Johnson's indifference to his suspicions that the 1919 World Series had been thrown.
The 1919 World Series was the last World Series to take place without a Commissioner of Baseball in place.

Happy Chandler

A. B. "Happy" ChandlerAlbert B. ChandlerAlbert "Happy" Chandler
His successor, Happy Chandler, said, "For twenty-four years Judge Landis wouldn't let a black man play. I had his records, and I read them, and for twenty-four years Landis consistently blocked any attempts to put blacks and whites together on a big league field." In, Ford Frick succeeded Happy Chandler as commissioner of baseball.
Aside from his political positions, he also served as the second Commissioner of Baseball from 1945 to 1951 and was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1982.

Detroit Tigers

TigersDetroitDET
Eventually, at the urging of Detroit Tigers owner and Johnson loyalist Frank Navin, a compromise was reached in late 1920 to reform the National Commission with a membership of non-baseball men.
After spiking Tiger third baseman Marv Owen in the sixth inning, the Cardinals' Joe Medwick had to be removed from the game for his own safety by Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis after being pelted with debris from angry fans in the large temporary bleacher section in left field.

Major League Baseball Most Valuable Player Award

Most Valuable PlayerMVPMost Valuable Player Award
He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1944, in a special election held one month after his death, and the Most Valuable Player Award in each league is officially known as the Kenesaw Mountain Landis Award in his honor.
The winners receive the Kenesaw Mountain Landis Memorial Baseball Award, which became the official name of the award in 1944, in honor of the first MLB commissioner, Kenesaw Mountain Landis, who served from 1920 until his death on November 25, 1944.

Ford Frick

Ford C. Frick
In, Ford Frick succeeded Happy Chandler as commissioner of baseball.
He was the third Commissioner of Major League Baseball (MLB) from 1951 to.

Bowie Kuhn

Bowie Kuhn's tenure was marked by labor strikes (most notably in 1981), owner disenchantment, and the end of baseball's reserve clause, yet baseball enjoyed unprecedented attendance gains (from 23 million in to 45.5 million in ) and television contracts during the same time frame.
Bowie Kent Kuhn (October 28, 1926 – March 15, 2007) was an American lawyer and sports administrator who served as the fifth Commissioner of Major League Baseball from February 4, 1969, to September 30, 1984.

Benny Kauff

In 1921, he banned Giants center fielder Benny Kauff even though he had been acquitted of involvement in a car theft ring.
Kauff was banned from baseball in 1921 amid charges of auto theft; despite his acquittal, baseball commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis refused to overturn the ban.

William Eckert

Spike EckertWilliam "Spike" Eckert
William Eckert became a serious candidate for the commissionership only after fellow officer Curtis LeMay gave Major League Baseball a recommendation for him.
William Dole Eckert (January 20, 1909 – April 16, 1971) was a lieutenant general in the United States Air Force, and later the fourth Commissioner of Major League Baseball from to.

Peter Ueberroth

UeberrothPeter V. Uberroth
He barred both Willie Mays (in ) and Mickey Mantle (in ) from the sport due to their involvement in casino promotion; neither was directly involved in gambling, and both were reinstated by Kuhn's successor Peter Ueberroth in.
He served as the sixth Commissioner of Baseball from 1984 to 1989.

History of baseball in the United States

steroid eramodern erawhere the modern version developed
The National Commission was the ruling body of professional baseball starting with the National Agreement of 1903, which made peace between the National League and the American League (see History of baseball in the United States).
However, the damage to the reputation of the sport of baseball led the team owners to appoint Federal judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis to be the first Commissioner of Baseball.

1951 in baseball

1951511951 NL playoff
Chandler's stance was credited by many in the sports community with Chandler's failure to be selected for another term as Commissioner after the expiration of his first one in 1951.
March 12 – Baseball commissioner Happy Chandler loses his bid to remain in office. Chandler, who started his term as commissioner in 1945, is voted down, 9-7, in a tally of owners. He will be succeeded by Ford C. Frick.

Bill Veeck

Bill Veeck, Jr.
Bill Veeck claimed Landis prevented him from purchasing the Phillies when Landis learned of Veeck's plan to integrate the team.
While on his way to Philadelphia to close on the purchase, Veeck decided to alert MLB Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis of his intentions.

Babe Ruth

George Herman "Babe" RuthGeorge Herman ("Babe") RuthRuth
Frick's most highly criticized statement as commissioner was made in 1961, when several players were on a pace to break Babe Ruth's single-season home run record.
Ruth made his first appearance against a team in organized baseball in an exhibition game versus the major-league Philadelphia Phillies.

Branch Rickey

Rickey, Branch
The signing of the first black ballplayer in the modern era, Jackie Robinson, came less than a year after Landis's death on Chandler's watch and was engineered by one of Landis's old nemeses, Branch Rickey.
Kenesaw Mountain Landis, the Commissioner of Baseball, was concerned that Rickey's minor league system was going to ruin baseball by destroying existing minor league teams, and he twice released over 70 Cardinal minor leaguers.

Baseball color line

color linecolor barrierintegration
Landis perpetuated the color line and prolonged the segregation of organized baseball.
The Negro National League was founded in by Rube Foster, independent of Organized Baseball's National Commission (1903–1920).

Heinie Zimmerman

[Heinie] Zimmerman
He also formalized the unofficial banishments of Hal Chase and Heinie Zimmerman.
Zimmerman denied McGraw's accusations, and neither he nor Chase was ever proven to be directly connected to the Black Sox, but based on a long-term pattern of corruption both were permanently banned from baseball by Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis, Commissioner of Baseball.

Jackie Robinson

42JackieJack Robinson
The signing of the first black ballplayer in the modern era, Jackie Robinson, came less than a year after Landis's death on Chandler's watch and was engineered by one of Landis's old nemeses, Branch Rickey.
After it was published, National League President Ford Frick and Baseball Commissioner Happy Chandler let it be known that any striking players would be suspended.

Flood v. Kuhn

casechallengesFlood's lawsuit
The case, Flood v. Kuhn (407 U.S. 258) eventually went to the Supreme Court.
Named as initial respondents were baseball commissioner Bowie Kuhn, MLB and all of its then-24 member clubs.