Common Agricultural Policy

Participants of the "Common Agricultural Policy 2014-2020" meeting of Chairpersons of Agriculture Committees of the EU member states in the Polish Senate
CAP Farm spending by sector
CAP 2004 beneficiaries
Percentage of EU farmland by country in 2004
Walter Hallstein, President of the European Commission during the CAP's formative years.
Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development in Brussels

Agricultural policy of the European Union.

- Common Agricultural Policy

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Agricultural subsidy

Government incentive paid to agribusinesses, agricultural organizations and farms to supplement their income, manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and influence the cost and supply of such commodities.

Agribusiness: a display of a John Deere 7800 tractor with Houle slurry trailer, Case IH combine harvester, New Holland FX 25 forage harvester with corn head
OECD countries support their livestock and dairy industries with subsidies worth billions of dollars.
From a Congressional Budget Office report

In Europe, Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was launched in 1962 to improve agricultural productivity.

Treaty of Rome

The Treaty of Rome, or EEC Treaty (officially the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community), brought about the creation of the European Economic Community (EEC), the best known of the European Communities (EC).

Signing ceremony of the treaty at the Palazzo dei Conservatori, on Capitoline Hill, Rome
The signature page on the original Treaty of Rome
A 1987 silver coin
One of the events in preparation of the 60th anniversary: projection on the Colosseum by the JEF

It also proposed the creation of a Common Agriculture Policy, a Common Transport Policy and a European Social Fund and established the European Commission.

European Structural and Investment Funds

The European Structural and Investment Funds (ESI Funds, ESIFs) are financial tools governed by a common rulebook, set up to implement the regional policy of the European Union, as well as the structural policy pillars of the Common Agricultural Policy and the Common Fisheries Policy.

Rural development

Process of improving the quality of life and economic well-being of people living in rural areas, often relatively isolated and sparsely populated areas.

Map showing happiness of countries by their score according to the 2018 World Happiness Report.

European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development, a part of the Common Agricultural Policy by the European Commission's Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development

European Union

Political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe.

Meeting in the Hall of Knights in The Hague, during the congress (9 May 1948)
The continental territories of the member states of the European Union (European Communities pre-1993), coloured in order of accession
Treaty of Maastricht, shown containing the signatures of some ministers representing their heads of state
Signing in the Jerónimos Monastery of Lisbon, Portugal
Topographic map of the European Union
Special territories of the European Union
Organigram of the political system with the seven institutions of the Union in blue, national / intergovernmental elements in orange
Roberta Metsola serves as President of the European Parliament
European Parliament represents the second-largest democratic electorate in the world (after the Parliament of India)
The CJEU's seat, the Palais de la Cour de Justice, in Luxembourg City.
Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights affirms the "Right to life" in the EU.
Josep Borrell, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.
The EU participates in all G7 and G20 summits. (G20 summit in Osaka, Japan, 2019).
Of the 27 EU member states, 21 (shown purple) are also members of NATO. Other colours: EU only (blue) and NATO only (orange, including four NATO members that are EU applicants – Albania, Montenegro, Turkey and North Macedonia).
The coat of arms of the European Union Military Staff (EUMS). The arms include Europe's crown of twelve golden stars, an anchor, wings and two crossed swords.
Eastern Partnership Summit 2015, Riga.
Union for the Mediterranean meeting in Barcelona.
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
The euro was introduced in 2002, replacing 12 national currencies. Seven countries have since joined.
In 2020, renewables overtook fossil fuels as the European Union's main source of electricity for the first time.
The Öresund Bridge between Denmark and Sweden is part of the Trans-European Networks.
European Space Agency Mission Control at ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany
Vineyards in Romania; EU farms are supported by the Common Agricultural Policy, the largest budgetary expenditure.
Biogeographic regions of the continental European Union, according to the European Environmental Agency
Erasmus of Rotterdam, the Renaissance humanist after whom the Erasmus Programme is named
European Health Insurance Card (Slovenian version pictured)
Football fans before a match (San Siro stadium in Milan)
Europa and the Bull on a Greek vase, circa 480 BC. Tarquinia National Museum, Italy
Euronews headquarters in Lyon, France
The European emblem emblazoned on the Eiffel Tower
The borders inside the Schengen Area between Germany and Austria
Europol Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands
Eurojust Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands
Seat of Frontex in Warsaw, Poland
The CJEU's seat, the Palais de la Cour de Justice, in Luxembourg City.
The EU participates in all G7 and G20 summits. (G7 summit in Cornwall, United Kingdom, 2021).
Eastern Partnership Summit 2017, Brussels.
Europol Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands
Eurojust Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands

EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market; enact legislation in justice and home affairs; and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development.

European Economic Area

Established via the Agreement on the European Economic Area, an international agreement which enables the extension of the European Union's single market to member states of the European Free Trade Association.

The EFTA members do not participate in the Common Agricultural Policy or the Common Fisheries Policy.

Euroscepticism

Political position involving criticism of the European Union and European integration.

Flag of the "EUSSR", a common trope among right-wing hard Eurosceptics who seek to compare the EU to the USSR
From the Parlameter 2018 poll, to the question "Taking everything into account, would you say that [our country] has on balance benefited or not from being a member of EU?", the interviewed answered "Benefited" with the following percentages:
Heinz-Christian Strache, former leader of the Austrian hard Eurosceptic party FPÖ.
Volen Siderov,
leader of the Bulgarian Eurosceptic party Attack.
European flag in Bulgaria torn down by supporters of the Eurosceptic party Attack
Václav Klaus, former Eurosceptic President of the Czech Republic.
Pia Kjærsgaard; member (and former leader) of the hard Eurosceptic party Danish People's Party (Dansk Folkeparti), the fifth-largest represented in the Danish parliament and the fifth-most represented in the European Parliament.
Marine Le Pen, prominent French MEP, former leader and former presidential candidate of the National Front (France) and of the Europe of Nations and Freedom group.
"Referendum on saving the euro!" Poster from the party Alternative for Germany (AfD) regarding Germany's financial contributions during the Eurozone crisis
Viktor Orbán, Prime Minister of Hungary
Matteo Salvini with the Eurosceptic economists Claudio Borghi Aquilini, Alberto Bagnai and Antonio Maria Rinaldi during the No Euro Day in Milan, 2013. All economists were later elected MPs in different assemblies
Geert Wilders, leader of the Party for Freedom, a hardline Dutch Eurosceptic party and a prominent anti-Islamic radicalism party.
Polish President Andrzej Duda, Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki and Jarosław Kaczyński, 9 April 2018
"Trumna dla rybaków" ("Coffin for fishermen"). A sign visible on the sides of many Polish fishing boats. It depicts an obscene Slavic gesture. Polish fishermen protest against the EU's prohibition of cod fishing on Polish ships.
Santiago Abascal, leader of Vox.
Russian President Vladimir Putin is an outspoken Eurosceptic who has promoted an alternative Economic Union with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan – the Eurasian Economic Union.
Serbian politician Boško Obradović, a prominent eurosceptic
Dmytro Yarosh, leader of the Ukrainian hard Eurosceptic party Right Sector.
Nigel Farage, former Leader of UKIP and the Brexit Party and former co-leader of the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy group in the European Parliament. Farage is one of the most prominent Eurosceptic figures in the UK.

In early 2019, the party aims to reduce the powers of the European Commission, to abolish the Common Agricultural Policy, to abandon common defense projects, to simplify the exit procedure of the European Union, to reject federalism and to forbid the European Union to direct economic, fiscal or social policy, Finally, the Workers' Party of Belgium is an electoral and unitary party.

Council of the European Union

Third of the seven Institutions of the European Union as listed in the Treaty on European Union.

Simplified illustration of the voting rules that apply within the ordinary legislative procedure. The actual procedure involves various stages of consultations aimed at achieving compromise between the positions of the two legislative chambers.
Since 2017, the Europa building, seen here, has been the seat of the Council.

The precise membership of these configurations varies according to the topic under consideration; for example, when discussing agricultural policy the Council is formed by the national ministers whose portfolio includes this policy area (with the related European Commissioners contributing but not voting).

President of the European Commission

Head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the :European Union.

Headquarters of the European Commission in Brussels (Berlaymont building).
Walter Hallstein, the first President of the Commission
President Mansholt opened the first enlargement talks with Denmark, Ireland, Norway and the United Kingdom
Jacques Delors (left) breathed new life into the European Commission Presidency after a period of 'eurosclerosis' under his predecessor, Gaston Thorn (right)
President Prodi was dubbed by the press as "Europe's first Prime Minister" due to his new powers
President Barroso, from the EPP which was the largest party after the 2004 and 2009 elections
For the first time, prior to the 2014 election presidential candidates were nominated. This enabled them to present election programmes and campaign for the position (the campaign bus of Jean-Claude Juncker depicted).
European Commission presidency candidates at Eurovision Debate (May 2019). Left to right: Zahradil, Cué, Keller, Vestager, Timmermans, Weber
Having both a Commission president (Barroso, left) and a European Council president (Van Rompuy, right) led to concerns over confusion and infighting

In 1965, Hallstein put forward his proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy, which would give the Community its own financial resources while giving more power to the Commission and Parliament and removing the veto power over Agriculture in the Council.

Dacian Cioloș

Romanian agronomist who served as Prime Minister of Romania from November 2015 to January 2017.

Cioloș in September 2010 as Commissioner for Agriculture
Cioloș at the October 2012 EPP Congress
Cioloș speaking in the European Parliament in 2020

As part of this objective, he promised to continue adapting and restructuring the Common Agricultural Policy.