Common ownership

community of goodscommon propertyowned collectivelycollective propertycommonsocial propertycollective ownershipcommonlyheld in commoncollectively
Common ownership refers to holding the assets of an organization, enterprise or community indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members or groups of members as common property.wikipedia
170 Related Articles

Communism

communistcommunistscommunist ideology
Common ownership of the means of production is a central goal of communist political movements as it is seen as a necessary democratic mechanism for the creation and continued function of a communist society.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.

Commons

commonthe commonscommon land
Advocates make a distinction between collective ownership and common property as the former refers to property owned jointly by agreement of a set of colleagues, such as producer cooperatives, whereas the latter refers to assets that are completely open for access, such as a public park freely available to everyone.
Some texts make a distinction in usage between common ownership of the commons and collective ownership among a group of colleagues, such as in a producers' cooperative.

Marxism

MarxistMarxistsMarxist theory
Marxist theory (specifically Friedrich Engels) holds that hunter-gatherer societies practiced a form of primitive communism as based on common ownership on a subsistence level.
As the productive forces continued to advance, Marx hypothesized that socialism would ultimately transform into a communist society; a classless, stateless, humane society based on common ownership and the underlying principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs".

Collective ownership

collectivecollectivelycollective employee ownership
Advocates make a distinction between collective ownership and common property as the former refers to property owned jointly by agreement of a set of colleagues, such as producer cooperatives, whereas the latter refers to assets that are completely open for access, such as a public park freely available to everyone.
In the latter (narrower) sense the term is distinguished from common ownership and the commons, which implies open-access, the holding of assets in common, and the negation of ownership as such.

Economic system

economyeconomic systemseconomical
Forms of common ownership exist in every economic system.
Additionally, socialism can be divided based on their property structures between those that are based on public ownership, worker or consumer cooperatives and common ownership (i.e. non-ownership).

Hutterites

HutteriteHutterianHutterian Brethren
Common ownership is practiced by some Christian groups such as the Hutterites (for about 500 years), the Bruderhof (for some 100 years) and others.
Since the death of their eponym Jakob Hutter in 1536, the beliefs of the Hutterites, especially living in a community of goods and nonresistance, have resulted in hundreds of years of diaspora in many countries.

Bruderhof Communities

BruderhofBruderhof CommunityBruderhofs
Common ownership is practiced by some Christian groups such as the Hutterites (for about 500 years), the Bruderhof (for some 100 years) and others.
The Bruderhof (place of brothers) is a Christian movement that practices community of goods after the example of the first church described in Acts 2 and Acts 4.

Means of production

different organizations of productionforcesmaterials
Common ownership of the means of production is a central goal of communist political movements as it is seen as a necessary democratic mechanism for the creation and continued function of a communist society.
Communism is a mode of production in which the means of production are not owned by anyone, but shared in common, without class based exploitation.

Communist society

communismpure communismstateless communism
Common ownership of the means of production is a central goal of communist political movements as it is seen as a necessary democratic mechanism for the creation and continued function of a communist society. Many socialist movements advocate the common ownership of the means of production by all of society as an eventual goal to be achieved through the development of the productive forces, although many socialists classify socialism as public-ownership of the means of production, reserving common ownership for what Karl Marx termed "upper-stage communism". Common ownership in a hypothetical communist society is distinguished from primitive forms of common property that have existed throughout history, such as Communalism and primitive communism, in that communist common ownership is the outcome of social and technological developments leading to the elimination of material scarcity in society.
A communist society is characterized by common ownership of the means of production with free access to the articles of consumption and is classless and stateless, implying the end of the exploitation of labour.

State ownership

state-ownedpublic ownershipstate owned
Many socialist movements advocate the common ownership of the means of production by all of society as an eventual goal to be achieved through the development of the productive forces, although many socialists classify socialism as public-ownership of the means of production, reserving common ownership for what Karl Marx termed "upper-stage communism".
Public ownership is one of the three major forms of property ownership, differentiated from private, collective/cooperative, and common ownership.

Clause IV

Clause FourClause 4Clause 4.4
From 1918 until 1995 the common ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange was cited in Clause IV of its constitution as a goal of the British Labour Party and was quoted on the back of its membership cards.
Common ownership, though later given a technical meaning by the 1976 Industrial Common Ownership Act, could mean municipal ownership, worker cooperatives or consumer cooperatives.

Business

for-profitenterprisefirm
Common ownership refers to holding the assets of an organization, enterprise or community indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members or groups of members as common property.

Political movement

movementpolitical movementsmovements
Common ownership of the means of production is a central goal of communist political movements as it is seen as a necessary democratic mechanism for the creation and continued function of a communist society.

Democracy

democraticdemocraciesdemocratically
Common ownership of the means of production is a central goal of communist political movements as it is seen as a necessary democratic mechanism for the creation and continued function of a communist society.

Gift economy

gift exchangegift economiesgift
Another term for this arrangement is a "gift economy" or communalism.

Communalism

communalcommunalistCommunal Effort
Another term for this arrangement is a "gift economy" or communalism. Common ownership in a hypothetical communist society is distinguished from primitive forms of common property that have existed throughout history, such as Communalism and primitive communism, in that communist common ownership is the outcome of social and technological developments leading to the elimination of material scarcity in society.

Nomad

nomadicnomadssemi-nomadic
Many nomadic societies effectively practiced common ownership of land.

Friedrich Engels

EngelsEngels, FriedrichFrederick Engels
Marxist theory (specifically Friedrich Engels) holds that hunter-gatherer societies practiced a form of primitive communism as based on common ownership on a subsistence level.

Primitive communism

communism
Marxist theory (specifically Friedrich Engels) holds that hunter-gatherer societies practiced a form of primitive communism as based on common ownership on a subsistence level. Common ownership in a hypothetical communist society is distinguished from primitive forms of common property that have existed throughout history, such as Communalism and primitive communism, in that communist common ownership is the outcome of social and technological developments leading to the elimination of material scarcity in society.

Early Christianity

early Christianearly churchearly Christians
Inspired by the Early Christians, many Christians have since tried to follow their example of community of goods and common ownership.

Cooperative

co-operativeco-opcooperatives
Advocates make a distinction between collective ownership and common property as the former refers to property owned jointly by agreement of a set of colleagues, such as producer cooperatives, whereas the latter refers to assets that are completely open for access, such as a public park freely available to everyone.

Productive forces

forces of productionforcesproductive force
Many socialist movements advocate the common ownership of the means of production by all of society as an eventual goal to be achieved through the development of the productive forces, although many socialists classify socialism as public-ownership of the means of production, reserving common ownership for what Karl Marx termed "upper-stage communism".

Post-scarcity economy

post-scarcityabundancepost scarcity
Common ownership in a hypothetical communist society is distinguished from primitive forms of common property that have existed throughout history, such as Communalism and primitive communism, in that communist common ownership is the outcome of social and technological developments leading to the elimination of material scarcity in society.

Labour Party (UK)

Labour PartyLabourBritish Labour Party
From 1918 until 1995 the common ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange was cited in Clause IV of its constitution as a goal of the British Labour Party and was quoted on the back of its membership cards.

Neoclassical economics

neoclassicalneoclassical economistsneo-classical economics
Neoclassical economic theory analyzes common ownership using contract theory.