Common wheat

bread wheatTriticum aestivumwheatsoft wheatsummer wheataestivumclub wheatcommon or bread wheatcommon or “bread” wheatfarmed wheat
Common wheat (Triticum aestivum), also known as bread wheat, is a cultivated wheat species.wikipedia
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durum wheathard wheatT. durum
This hybridisation created the species Triticum turgidum (durum wheat) 580,000–820,000 years ago.
It is the second most cultivated species of wheat after common wheat, although it represents only 5% to 8% of global wheat production.


hulled wheatSpelt breadspelt crust
Free-threshing wheat is closely related to spelt.
Spelt is sometimes considered a subspecies of the closely related species common wheat (Triticum aestivum), in which case its botanical name is considered to be Triticum aestivum subsp.

Taxonomy of wheat

hexaploid bread wheatmany species of wheatrivet wheat
For more information, see the taxonomy of wheat.
There are no wild hexaploid wheats, although feral forms of common wheat are sometimes found.


cornTriticumdwarf wheat
Free-threshing wheat is closely related to spelt. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum), also known as bread wheat, is a cultivated wheat species. Compact wheats (e.g., club wheat Triticum compactum, but in India T. sphaerococcum) are closely related to common wheat, but have a much more compact ear.
The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum).

Triticum compactum

Compact wheatsT. compactum humboldtiiT. compactum rufulum
Compact wheats (e.g., club wheat Triticum compactum, but in India T. sphaerococcum) are closely related to common wheat, but have a much more compact ear.
T. compactum is similar enough to common wheat (T. aestivum) that it is often considered a subspecies, T. aestivum compactum.

Aegilops tauschii

Ae. tauschiitauschii
The last two sets of chromosomes came from wild goat-grass Aegilops tauschii 230,000–430,000 years ago.
It is a diploid (2n = 2x = 14, DD) goat grass species which has contributed the D genome in common wheat.


breadsbreadmakingleavened bread
Worldwide, bread wheat has proved well adapted to modern industrial baking, and has displaced many of the other wheat, barley, and rye species that were once commonly used for bread making, particularly in Europe.
Owing to its high levels of gluten (which give the dough sponginess and elasticity), common or bread wheat is the most common grain used for the preparation of bread, which makes the largest single contribution to the world's food supply of any food.

Triticum urartu

Of the six sets of chromosomes, two come from Triticum urartu (einkorn wheat) and two from Aegilops speltoides.
It is a diploid species whose genome is the A genome of the allopolyploid hexaploid bread wheat Triticum aestivum, which has genomes AABBDD.

Stem rust

cereal rustwheat stem rustPuccinia graminis
Crop species that are affected by the disease include bread wheat, durum wheat, barley and triticale.

Winter wheat

spring wheathard red winter wheatTurkey Red hard winter wheat
Winter wheat (usually Triticum aestivum) are strains of wheat that are planted in the autumn to germinate and develop into young plants that remain in the vegetative phase during the winter and resume growth in early spring.

Anti-gliadin antibodies

AGAanti-gliadin IgGAntibodies to α-gliadin
In bread wheat it is encoded by three different alleles, AA, BB, and DD. These alleles can produce slightly different gliadins, which can cause the body to produce different antibodies.

History of Western civilization before AD 500

An agricultural revolution began here around 10,000 years ago with the domestication of animals like sheep and goats and the appearance of new wheat hybrids, notably bread wheat, at the completion of the last Ice Age, which allowed for a transition from nomadism to village settlements and then cities like Jericho.

Marquis wheat

MarquisMarquis' wheat
The 'Marquis' bread wheat cultivar was developed by Dominion Agriculturalist Charles Saunders in 1904.


goatgrassgoat grass
The familiar common wheat (Triticum aestivum) arose when cultivated emmer wheat hybridized with Aegilops tauschii about 8,000 years ago.

Khorasan wheat

kamutKhorasanoriental wheat
As an annual, self-fertilized grass that is cultivated for its grains, Khorasan wheat looks very similar to common wheat.

Food and dining in the Roman Empire

replaced by a culture of gastronomy as the Roman Empire developed
Grains included several varieties of wheat—emmer, rivet wheat, einkorn, spelt, and common wheat (Triticum aestivum) —as well as the less desirable barley, millet, and oats.

Agriculture in ancient Rome

According to the Roman scholar Varro, common wheat and durum wheat were introduced to Italy as crops about 450 BCE.

Wheatgrass (disambiguation)

Wheatgrass, grass, juice, tablet or powder of the young common wheat plant, grown for human consumption


Macrobotanical remains from the site are of Einkorn wheat, Emmer, Common wheat, Naked and Hulled barley, and Flax.

Wheat yellow rust

wheat stripe rustyellowPuccinia striiformis'' f.sp. ''tritici
Primary hosts of yellow rust are Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), Triticum turgidum (durum wheat), triticale, and a few Hordeum vulgare (barley) cultivars.

Ancient Greek cuisine

ancient Greekancient Greecewine
Bread wheat, difficult to grow in Mediterranean climates, and the white bread made from it, were associated with the upper classes in the ancient Mediterranean, while the poor ate coarse brown breads made from emmer wheat and barley.


Glutenin is the most common glutelin, as it is found in wheat and is responsible for some of the refined baking properties in bread wheat.

Streptomyces tritici

Streptomyces tritici is a bacterium species from the genus of Streptomyces which has been isolated from rhizosphere soil from the wheat-plant Triticum aestivum.

Robert A. Martienssen

Robert Martienssen
Martienssen received his PhD in 1986 from the University of Cambridge on the molecular genetics of alpha-amylase gene families in common wheat supervised by David Baulcombe.