Common wheat

bread wheatTriticum aestivumwheatsoft wheatsummer wheataestivumclub wheatcommon or bread wheatcommon or “bread” wheatfarmed wheat
Common wheat (Triticum aestivum), also known as bread wheat, is a cultivated wheat species.wikipedia
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Durum

durum wheathard wheatT. durum
This hybridisation created the species Triticum turgidum (durum wheat) 580,000–820,000 years ago.
It is the second most cultivated species of wheat after common wheat, although it represents only 5% to 8% of global wheat production.

Taxonomy of wheat

hexaploid bread wheatmany species of wheatrivet wheat
For more information, see the taxonomy of wheat.
There are no wild hexaploid wheats, although feral forms of common wheat are sometimes found.

Spelt

hulled wheatSpelt breadspelt crust
Free-threshing wheat is closely related to spelt.
Spelt is sometimes considered a subspecies of the closely related species common wheat (Triticum aestivum), in which case its botanical name is considered to be Triticum aestivum subsp.

Aegilops tauschii

Ae. tauschiitauschii
The last two sets of chromosomes came from wild goat-grass Aegilops tauschii 230,000–430,000 years ago.
It is a diploid (2n = 2x = 14, DD) goat grass species which has contributed the D genome in common wheat.

Triticum urartu

Of the six sets of chromosomes, two come from Triticum urartu (einkorn wheat) and two from Aegilops speltoides.
It is a diploid species whose genome is the A genome of the allopolyploid hexaploid bread wheat Triticum aestivum, which has genomes AABBDD.

Bread

breadsbreadmakingleavened bread
Worldwide, bread wheat has proved well adapted to modern industrial baking, and has displaced many of the other wheat, barley, and rye species that were once commonly used for bread making, particularly in Europe.
Owing to its high levels of gluten (which give the dough sponginess and elasticity), common or bread wheat is the most common grain used for the preparation of bread, which makes the largest single contribution to the world's food supply of any food.

Wheat

cornTriticumdwarf wheat
Free-threshing wheat is closely related to spelt. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum), also known as bread wheat, is a cultivated wheat species. Compact wheats (e.g., club wheat Triticum compactum, but in India T. sphaerococcum) are closely related to common wheat, but have a much more compact ear.
The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum).

Triticum compactum

Compact wheatsT. compactum humboldtiiT. compactum rufulum
Compact wheats (e.g., club wheat Triticum compactum, but in India T. sphaerococcum) are closely related to common wheat, but have a much more compact ear.
T. compactum is similar enough to common wheat (T. aestivum) that it is often considered a subspecies, T. aestivum compactum.

Polyploidy

tetraploidpolyploidtriploid
Bread wheat is an allohexaploid (an allopolyploid with six sets of chromosomes: two sets from each of three different species).

Aegilops speltoides

A. speltoidesAe. speltoidesspeltoides
Of the six sets of chromosomes, two come from Triticum urartu (einkorn wheat) and two from Aegilops speltoides.

Western Asia

West Asiansouthwest AsiaWest Asia
Common wheat was first domesticated in Western Asia during the early Holocene, and spread from there to North Africa, Europe and East Asia in the prehistoric period.

Holocene

PresentRecentpostglacial
Common wheat was first domesticated in Western Asia during the early Holocene, and spread from there to North Africa, Europe and East Asia in the prehistoric period.

North Africa

northern AfricaNorthnorthern
Common wheat was first domesticated in Western Asia during the early Holocene, and spread from there to North Africa, Europe and East Asia in the prehistoric period.

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
Common wheat was first domesticated in Western Asia during the early Holocene, and spread from there to North Africa, Europe and East Asia in the prehistoric period.

North America

NorthNAAmerica
Wheat first reached North America with Spanish missions in the 16th century, but North America's role as a major exporter of grain dates from the colonization of the prairies in the 1870s.

Prairie

prairieswet prairieprairie grasslands
Wheat first reached North America with Spanish missions in the 16th century, but North America's role as a major exporter of grain dates from the colonization of the prairies in the 1870s.

Russia

🇷🇺RUSRussian
As grain exports from Russia ceased in the First World War, grain production in Kansas doubled.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarFirst
As grain exports from Russia ceased in the First World War, grain production in Kansas doubled.

Kansas

KSState of KansasKansan
As grain exports from Russia ceased in the First World War, grain production in Kansas doubled.

Baking

bakedbaked goodsbake
Worldwide, bread wheat has proved well adapted to modern industrial baking, and has displaced many of the other wheat, barley, and rye species that were once commonly used for bread making, particularly in Europe.

Barley

malting barleysix-row barleyH. vulgare
Worldwide, bread wheat has proved well adapted to modern industrial baking, and has displaced many of the other wheat, barley, and rye species that were once commonly used for bread making, particularly in Europe.

Rye

winter ryerye flourLargest rye producer
Worldwide, bread wheat has proved well adapted to modern industrial baking, and has displaced many of the other wheat, barley, and rye species that were once commonly used for bread making, particularly in Europe.

Gibberellic acid

gibberelinGA3
that reduce the plant's sensitivity to gibberellic acid, a plant hormone that lengthens cells.

Norman Borlaug

Norman E. BorlaugDr. Norman BorlaugNorman Ernest Borlaug
RHt genes were introduced to modern wheat varieties in the 1960s by Norman Borlaug from Norin 10 cultivars of wheat grown in Japan.

Norin 10 wheat

Norin 10semi-dwarf wheat
RHt genes were introduced to modern wheat varieties in the 1960s by Norman Borlaug from Norin 10 cultivars of wheat grown in Japan.