Signing of the agreement to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), 8 December 1991
Approximate extent of Scythia within the area of distribution of Eastern Iranian languages (shown in orange) in the 1st century BC
Meeting of the leaders of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in Bishkek, 2008. The CIS initiated the lengthy process of Eurasian integration.
The 20–22 June 2000 CIS Summit
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Member states:
Cuman–Kipchak confederation in Eurasia circa 1200. The Kazakhs are descendants of Kipchaks, Nogais and other Turkic and medieval Mongol tribes
Current decision-making process of the Eurasian Customs Union and the Single Economic Space
Meeting of CIS leaders in Bishkek, 2008
Ural Cossacks skirmish with Kazakhs (the Russians originally called the Kazakhs "Kirgiz")
Selection of GDP PPP data (top 10 countries and blocs) in no particular order
The members of the council meeting in Moscow in 2017
Map of the Kazakh Territory in 1903
The Moscow International Business Center is a commercial district in Moscow that is currently under construction. The complex includes some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers.
Stanitsa Sofiiskaya, Talgar. 1920s
A silver altyn minted in 1711 during the reign of Peter the Great
Young Pioneers at a Young Pioneer camp in Kazakh SSR
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a vital link between the Russian Far East and the rest of Eurasia.
The International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978, known as the Alma-Ata Declaration
The Turkestan–Siberia Railway connects the Central Asian republics to Siberia.
The Monument of Independence, Republic Square, Almaty
A Rye Field by Ivan Shishkin
Satellite image of Kazakhstan (November 2004)
Past and projected GDP (nominal) per capita in EAEU countries.
The Kazakh Steppe is part of the Eurasian Steppe Belt (in on the map)
Free trade agreements of EEU. Red - EEU. Green - Countries that have FTA with EEU.
Karaganda Region
On 21 May 2014, Russia and China signed a $400 billion gas deal. Starting 2019, Russia plans to provide natural gas to China for the next 30 years.
Kazakhstan map of Köppen climate classification
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Corsac fox
Ilham Aliyev, Dmitry Medvedev and Serzh Sarkisian hold peace talks in Moscow on 2 November 2008.
Ak Orda Presidential Palace
Mount Elbrus – Russia
Parliament of Kazakhstan
Mountain range – Armenia
Nur Otan Headquarters in Nur-Sultan
Lama River – in the Moscow region of Russia
President Nazarbayev with U.S. President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in 2012
Sharyn Canyon – Kazakhstan
President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev with 
Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2019
On the southern shore of Issyk-Kul lake, Issyk-Kul Region – Kyrgyzstan
Member states of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)
Winter – Belarus
Kazakhstan Republican Guard
A view of Mount Aragats from Aragatsotn – Armenia
A Kazakhstan Sukhoi Su-27
A view of Mount Mönkh Saridag – Okinsky District, Russia
Downtown Nur-Sultan
Lake Ayger – Armenia
GDP per capita development, since 1973
Lake Servech – Belarus
A proportional representation of Kazakhstan exports, 2019
Winter in the Altai Krai – Russia
Aktau is Kazakhstan's only seaport on the Caspian Sea
Tian Shan mountain range – Kyrgyzstan
A map of Kazakhstan's imports, 2013
Saint Petersburg, the second-largest city and cultural capital of Russia
Kazakhstan has the largest proven oil reserves in the Caspian Sea region.
Yerevan, the capital and financial hub of Armenia
Grain fields near Kokshetau
Business centre in central downtown Nur-Sultan
Map of Kazakhstan railway network
Almaty, the major commercial and cultural centre of Kazakhstan
Train 22 Kyzylorda – Semipalatinsk, hauled by a Kazakhstan Temir Zholy 2TE10U diesel locomotive. Picture taken near Aynabulak, Kazakhstan
Bishkek, the capital and financial hub of Kyrgyzstan
Borovoe, view from Mount Bolectau
Member States of the Eurasian Economic Union
Observer states
Candidate states
A ski resort in Almaty
Astana Expo 2017 "Nur Alem" Pavilion
Almaty
Trends in research expenditure in Central Asia, as a percentage of GDP, 2001–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: 2030 (2015), Figure 14.3
Group of Kazakhstan physicists in collaboration with Uzbek researchers working at the ion accelerator DC-60
Baikonur Cosmodrome is the world's oldest and largest operational spaceport
Population pyramid, 2020
Central Asian ethnolinguistic patchwork, 1992
Kazakhstanis on a Lake Jasybay beach, Pavlodar Region
Ascension Cathedral in Almaty
Khazret Sultan Mosque is the biggest mosque in Kazakhstan
Kazakh National University of Arts
A Kazakhstan performer demonstrates the long equestrian heritage as part of the gala concert during the opening ceremonies of the Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalion
Kanysh Satpayev, one of the founders of Soviet era metallogeny, principal advocate and the first president of Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences
1965 Soviet stamp honouring Kazakh essayist and poet Abai Qunanbaiuly
Nowruz on stamp of Kazakhstan
A-Studio was created in 1982 in Almaty, then called Alma-Ata, hence called "Alma-Ata Studio"
Astana Arena opened in 2009
Nikolai Antropov
International Astana Action Film Festival, 2010
Timur Bekmambetov, a notable Kazakh director

The Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union was signed on 29 May 2014 by the leaders of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and came into force on 1 January 2015.

- Eurasian Economic Union

Kazakhstan is a member state of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the Organization of Turkic States, and the International Organization of Turkic Culture.

- Kazakhstan

Three organizations originated from the CIS, namely the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Eurasian Economic Union (alongside subdivisions, the Eurasian Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Space); and the Union State.

- Commonwealth of Independent States

When the USSR began to fall in 1991, the presidents of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia of the founding republics signed the Belavezha Accords on 8 December 1991, declaring that the Soviet Union would cease to exist and proclaimed the Commonwealth of Independent States in its place.

- Eurasian Economic Union

On 21 December 1991, the leaders of eight additional former Soviet Republics (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) signed the Alma-Ata Protocol which can either be interpreted as expanding the CIS to these states or the proper foundation or foundation date of the CIS, thus bringing the number of participating countries to 11.

- Commonwealth of Independent States

4 related topics with Alpha

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Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

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The process of internal disintegration within the Soviet Union (USSR) which resulted in the end of the country's and its federal government's existence as a sovereign state, thereby resulting in its constituent republics gaining full sovereignty.

The process of internal disintegration within the Soviet Union (USSR) which resulted in the end of the country's and its federal government's existence as a sovereign state, thereby resulting in its constituent republics gaining full sovereignty.

Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987
The first exhibition on the crimes of Stalinism, called "Week of Conscience", was held in Moscow on November 19, 1988
Environmental concerns over the Metsamor nuclear power plant drove initial demonstrations in Yerevan.
Figure of Liberty on the Freedom Monument in Riga, focus of the 1986 Latvian demonstrations
Anti-Soviet rally in Vingis Park of about 250,000 people. Sąjūdis was a movement which led to the restoration of an Independent State of Lithuania.
Andrei Sakharov, formerly exiled to Gorky, was elected to the Congress of People's Deputies in March 1989.
The Eastern Bloc
Baltic Way 1989 demonstration in Šiauliai, Lithuania showing coffins decorated with national flags of the three Baltic republics placed symbolically beneath Soviet and Nazi flags
Photos of victims (mostly young women) of an April 1989 massacre in Tbilisi, Georgia
Meeting in Kurapaty, Belarus, 1989
Nursultan Nazarbayev became leader of the Kazakh SSR in 1989 and later led Kazakhstan to independence.
Lithuania's Vytautas Landsbergis
Estonia's Edgar Savisaar
Latvia's Ivars Godmanis
Azerbaijani stamp with photos of Black January
Viacheslav Chornovil, a prominent Ukrainian dissident and a lead figure of Rukh
Leonid Kravchuk became Ukraine's leader in 1990.
Saparmurat Niyazov, last head of the Turkmen SSR and first president of Turkmenistan
Following Georgia's declaration of independence in 1991, South Ossetia and Abkhazia declared their desire to leave Georgia and remain part of the Soviet Union/Russia.
Boris Yeltsin, Russia's first democratically elected president
Barricade erected in Riga to prevent the Soviet Army from reaching the Latvian Parliament, July 1991
Tanks in Red Square during the 1991 August coup attempt
Signing of the agreement to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States, 8 December
The state emblem of the Soviet Union and the СССР letters (top) in the façade of the Grand Kremlin Palace were replaced by five double-headed Russian eagles (bottom) after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the eagles having been removed by the Bolsheviks after the revolution.
The upper chamber of the Supreme Soviet in its ultimate session, voting the USSR out of existence, December 26
Russian GDP since the end of the Soviet Union (from 2014 are forecasts)
Russian male life expectancy, 1980–2007
Animated map showing independent states and territorial changes to the Soviet Union in chronological order
Pro-Russian separatists in Donetsk celebrate the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany, May 9, 2018
Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War

The Belovezh Accords were signed on 8 December by President Boris Yeltsin of Russia, President Kravchuk of Ukraine, and Chairman Shushkevich of Belarus, recognising each other's independence and creating the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) instead of the Soviet Union.

Kazakhstan was the last nation to leave the Union, proclaiming independence on December 16.

In the aftermath of the Cold War, several of the former Soviet republics have retained close links with Russia and formed multilateral organizations such as the CIS, the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), and the Union State, for economic and military cooperation.

Kyrgyzstan

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Mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia.

Mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia.

Kyrgyz Khaganate
Silk road caravansarai utilized during the Islamic Golden Age
Bishkek
Urial on a Kyrgyzstan stamp
Nomads in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyz family in the village of Sary-Mogol, Osh Region
Kyrgyzstan's second-largest city, Osh, in 2018
Kyrgyzstan's topography
On the southern shore of Issyk Kul lake, Issyk Kul Region
A map of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan map of Köppen climate classification
Sadyr Japarov, President of Kyrgyzstan
Supreme Council building in Bishkek.
Japarov with Vladimir Putin.
President Sooronbay Jeenbekov at the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit in China, June 2018
Kyrgyz soldiers conducting mine sweeping exercises.
A proportional representation of Kyrgyzstan exports, 2019
Southern shore of Issyk Kul Lake.
Issyk Kul Lake
A population pyramid showing Kyrgyzstan's age distribution (2005).
Population density of Kyrgyzstan, 2015
Kyrgyz men in Naryn Region
Uzbeks in Osh
The name of Kyrgyzstan rendered in the traditional script in use from 13th century to 1920.
Karakol Dungan Mosque
Bishkek Eastern Orthodox Church
Mosque under construction in Kyrgyzstan
Musicians playing traditional Kyrgyz music.
A traditional Kyrgyz manaschi performing part of the Epic of Manas at a yurt camp in Karakol
Hunting with an eagle
Bandy: Kyrgyzstan in red against Japan
Bishkek West Bus Terminal
Street scene in Osh.

Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the south, and the People's Republic of China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek.

Kyrgyzstan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Organisation of Turkic States, the Türksoy community and the United Nations.

Official photo portrait, May 2013

Nursultan Nazarbayev

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Kazakh retired politician who served as the first President of Kazakhstan, in office from country’s independence in 1991 until his formal resignation in 2019, and as the Chairman of the Security Council of Kazakhstan from 1991 to 2022.

Kazakh retired politician who served as the first President of Kazakhstan, in office from country’s independence in 1991 until his formal resignation in 2019, and as the Chairman of the Security Council of Kazakhstan from 1991 to 2022.

Official photo portrait, May 2013
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Nazarbayev (three rows from left) at the 1992 World Economic Forum chaired by Henry Kissinger in Davos
1993 Kazakh postage stamp of Nazarbayev
Nazarbayev with US President George W. Bush at the White House in September 2006
Nazarbayev with Vladimir Putin and Shavkat Mirziyoyev in October 2018
Nazarbayev with Lee Myung-bak in Seoul, 2010
Nazarbayev with President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev, President of Finland Tarja Halonen and Prime Minister of Spain José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero in 2011
Kazakhstan 2050 Strategy logo
During a visit to the central mosque of the Aktobe Region.
Meeting with the Russian then-president Dmitry Medvedev in 2008 in Astana
Nazarbayev (center) at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit with Barack Obama (left) and Dmitry Medvedev (right)
Nazarbayev with Nikol Pashinyan, Anna Hakobyan, Igor Dodon and Dmitry Medvedev at the FIFA World Cup in Russia
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry and Nazarbayev in Aqorda, 2 November 2015
Nazarbayev (left) with U.S. President Donald Trump at the Oval Office, 16 January 2018
Nazarbayev (third from the left) with Vladimir Putin at the 2019 Moscow Victory Day Parade
Nursultan Nazarbayev monument, Ankara, Turkey
Postage stamp with Nazarbayev
Nursultan Nazarbayev street, Amman
Nazarbayev with leaders of China, Russia and India during the Moscow Victory Day Parade, 9 May 2015
Postage stamp with Nazarbayev, Barack Obama and Dmitry Medvedev
William Cohen and Nazarbayev in November 1997
Vladimir Putin with Nursultan Nazarbayev in 2000
Nursultan Nazarbayev in 2002
Nazarbayev holding a speech in 2012
Painting of Elbasy Nursultan Nazarbayev in 2014
Nazarbayev in 2021

The Soviet Union then fell apart after 1991 Soviet coup d'etat failed, though Nazarbayev went to great lengths to maintain close economic ties with Russia by introducing Kazakhstan into the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and eventually the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU).

Kazakhstan: The Capital of Kazakhstan was named after him after his resignation in 2019.

Representatives of EAEC and CSTO.

Eurasian Economic Community

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Regional organisation between 2000 and 2014 which aimed for the economic integration of its member states.

Regional organisation between 2000 and 2014 which aimed for the economic integration of its member states.

Representatives of EAEC and CSTO.
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Summit of the EurAsEC on 31 May 2001

The organisation originated from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) on 29 March 1996, with the treaty on the establishment of the Eurasian Economic Community signed on 10 October 2000 in Kazakhstan's capital Astana by Presidents Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus, Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan, Askar Akayev of Kyrgyzstan, Vladimir Putin of Russia, and Emomali Rahmon of Tajikistan.

The Eurasian Economic Community was terminated from 1 January 2015 in connection with the launch of the Eurasian Economic Union.

The Common Economic Space would involve a supranational commission on trade and tariffs that would be based in Kyiv, would initially be headed by a representative of Kazakhstan, and would not be subordinate to the governments of the four nations.