Commonwealth of the Philippines

Philippine CommonwealthPhilippinesCommonwealthCommonwealth GovernmentCommonwealth EraPhilippines CommonwealthPhilippine Commonwealth governmentCommonwealth periodPhilippine Islandsthe Philippines
The Commonwealth of the Philippines (Commonwealth de Filipinas; Komonwelt ng Pilipinas, Malasariling Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas) was the administrative body that governed the Philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the Second World War from 1942 to 1945 when Japan occupied the country.wikipedia
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Insular Government of the Philippine Islands

Philippine IslandsInsular GovernmentPhilippines
It replaced the Insular Government, a United States territorial government, and was established by the Tydings–McDuffie Act.
The Insular Government was preceded by the United States Military Government of the Philippine Islands and was followed by the Commonwealth of the Philippines.

Japanese occupation of the Philippines

Japanese occupationoccupationoccupation of the Philippines
The Commonwealth of the Philippines (Commonwealth de Filipinas; Komonwelt ng Pilipinas, Malasariling Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas) was the administrative body that governed the Philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the Second World War from 1942 to 1945 when Japan occupied the country.
The Japanese occupation of the Philippines (Filipino: Pananakop ng mga Hapones sa Pilipinas; Japanese: 日本のフィリピン占領; Hepburn: Nihon no Firipin Senryō) occurred between 1942 and 1945, when Imperial Japan occupied the Commonwealth of the Philippines during World War II.

Manuel L. Quezon

Manuel QuezonManuel Luis QuezonQuezon
The bill, however, was opposed by the then-Philippine Senate President Manuel L. Quezon and was also rejected by the Philippine Senate.
Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (19 August 1878 – 1 August 1944) was a Filipino statesman, soldier and politician who served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944.

Tydings–McDuffie Act

Philippine Independence ActTydings-McDuffie ActTydings-McDuffie Law
It replaced the Insular Government, a United States territorial government, and was established by the Tydings–McDuffie Act.
Under the act, the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines was written and the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established, with the first directly elected President of the Philippines.

Emilio Aguinaldo

AguinaldoGeneral Emilio AguinaldoGen. Emilio Aguinaldo
Candidates included former president Emilio Aguinaldo, the Iglesia Filipina Independiente leader Gregorio Aglipay, and others.
In 1935, Aguinaldo ran unsuccessfully for president of the Philippine Commonwealth against Manuel Quezon.

1935 Philippine presidential election

1935presidential elections1935 elections
On 16 September 1935, presidential elections were held.
This was the fourth election since the enactment of the Tydings–McDuffie Act, a law that paved the way for a transitory government, as well as the first nationwide at-large election ever held in the Philippines.

Philippines campaign (1941–1942)

invasion of the PhilippinesPhilippines CampaignJapanese invasion of the Philippines
Japan launched a surprise attack on the Philippines on December 8, 1941.
The Philippines campaign (Filipino: Kampanya sa Pilipinas or Labanan sa Pilipinas), the Battle of the Philippines or the Fall of the Philippines, fought 8 December 1941 – 8 May 1942, was the invasion of the Philippines by Imperial Japan and the defense of the islands by United States and Filipino forces during the Second World War.

Battle of Bataan

Bataanfall of BataanBataan Peninsula
Meanwhile, battles against the Japanese continued on the Bataan Peninsula, Corregidor, and Leyte until the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces in May 1942.
The Battle of Bataan (Filipino: Labanan sa Bataan) (7 January – 9 April 1942) was a battle fought by the United States and the Philippine Commonwealth against Japan during World War II.

Philippines

FilipinoPhilippinePhilippine Islands
The Commonwealth of the Philippines (Commonwealth de Filipinas; Komonwelt ng Pilipinas, Malasariling Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas) was the administrative body that governed the Philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the Second World War from 1942 to 1945 when Japan occupied the country. Elections followed in April 1946 with Manuel Roxas winning as the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines and Elpidio Quirino winning as vice-president.
From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–1946), American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name.

Battle of Corregidor

Corregidorfall of CorregidorCorregidor Island
Meanwhile, battles against the Japanese continued on the Bataan Peninsula, Corregidor, and Leyte until the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces in May 1942.
The Battle of Corregidor (Filipino: Labanan sa Corregidor), fought May 5–6, 1942, was the culmination of the Japanese campaign for the conquest of the Commonwealth of the Philippines during World War II.

President of the Senate of the Philippines

Senate PresidentPresident of the SenateSenate President of the Philippines
The bill, however, was opposed by the then-Philippine Senate President Manuel L. Quezon and was also rejected by the Philippine Senate.

Filipino language

FilipinoTagalogSpoken languages
In 1937, the government selected Tagalog – the language of Manila and its surrounding provinces – as the basis of the national language, although it would be many years before its usage became general.
Article XIII, section 3 of the 1935 constitution establishing the Commonwealth of the Philippines provided that:

Manuel Roxas

Manuel A. RoxasManuel Acuña RoxasRoxas
Elections followed in April 1946 with Manuel Roxas winning as the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines and Elpidio Quirino winning as vice-president.
He briefly served as the third and last President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from May 28, 1946 to July 4, 1946 and then became the first President of the independent Third Philippine Republic after the United States ceded its sovereignty over the Philippines.

Philippines campaign (1944–1945)

Philippines campaignPhilippines Campaign (1944–45)Philippines
The Philippine Constabulary was placed on active service with the Philippine Commonwealth Army and re-established on October 28, 1944, to June 30, 1946, during the Allied liberation to Post-World War II era.
The Philippines campaign, the Battle of the Philippines or the Liberation of the Philippines (Filipino: Kampanya sa Pilipinas, Labanan sa Pilipinas & Liberasyon ng Pilipinas), (Operation Musketeer I, II, and III) (Filipino: Operasyon Mosketero I, II, at III), was the American and Filipino campaign to defeat and expel the Imperial Japanese forces occupying the Philippines during World War II.

Second Philippine Republic

Second RepublicPhilippinesJapanese occupation
Meanwhile, the Japanese military organized a new government in the Philippines known as the Second Philippine Republic, headed by president José P. Laurel.
General Masaharu Homma decreed the dissolution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and established the Philippine Executive Commission, a caretaker government, with Vargas as its first chairman in January 1942.

National Defense Act of 1935

CA 1Commonwealth Act № 1National Defense Act
These included national defense (such as the National Defense Act of 1935, which organized a conscription for service in the country), greater control over the economy, the perfection of democratic institutions, reforms in education, improvement of transport, the promotion of local capital, industrialization, and the colonization of Mindanao.
The act divided the Commonwealth of the Philippines into ten military districts, similar to the prewar corps areas within the US.

Ermita

Ermita, ManilaErmita DistrictErmita (Manila)
The main general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army (PCA), located on the military station in Ermita, Manila, was closed down on December 24, 1941.
Ermita gained renewed prominence during the American & Commonwealth Era.

United States Army Forces in the Far East

USAFFEU.S. Army Forces Far EastU.S. Army Forces in the Far East
The Commonwealth government drafted the Philippine Army into the U.S. Army Forces Far East, which would resist Japanese occupation.
That same day, the War Department created the USAFFE command, with jurisdiction over the Philippine Department and the military forces of Commonwealth of the Philippines (seemingly principally the Philippine Army, with two regular and ten reserve divisions).

Territories of the United States

territoriesU.S. territoriesterritory
It replaced the Insular Government, a United States territorial government, and was established by the Tydings–McDuffie Act.

Omni Shoreham Hotel

Shoreham HotelOmni ShorehamShoreham
Quezon and Osmeña were escorted by troops from Manila to Corregidor, and later left for Australia prior to going to the U.S., where they set up a government in exile, based at the Shoreham Hotel, in Washington, D.C. This government participated in the Pacific War Council as well as the Declaration by United Nations.
Philippine President Manuel L. Quezon had his official residence in the Shoreham Hotel, during the period the government-in-exile of the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established in Washington, D.C. from May 1942 until his death in August 1944.

Jose P. Laurel

José P. LaurelJosé LaurelJose Laurel
Meanwhile, the Japanese military organized a new government in the Philippines known as the Second Philippine Republic, headed by president José P. Laurel.
Following the ratification of the 1935 Constitution and the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, Laurel was appointed Associate Justice of the Supreme Court on February 29, 1936.

Sergio Osmeña

OsmeñaSergio OsmenaSergio Osmeña Sr.
Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña of the Nacionalista Party were proclaimed the winners, winning the seats of president and vice-president, respectively.
President Osmeña, after thanking the United States through General MacArthur, announced the restoration of the Government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and worked out the salvation of the Philippines from the ravages of war.

Government in exile

government-in-exilein exileexile government
The Commonwealth of the Philippines (Commonwealth de Filipinas; Komonwelt ng Pilipinas, Malasariling Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas) was the administrative body that governed the Philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the Second World War from 1942 to 1945 when Japan occupied the country.
The Philippine Commonwealth (invaded December 9, 1941) established a government in exile in Australia and the United States.

Empire of Japan

JapaneseJapanImperial Japan
Japan launched a surprise attack on the Philippines on December 8, 1941.
Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese launched offensives against Allied forces in East and Southeast Asia, with simultaneous attacks in British Hong Kong, British Malaya and the Philippines.

National Museum of Fine Arts (Manila)

National Museum of Fine ArtsLegislative BuildingOld Legislative Building
The Commonwealth government was inaugurated on the morning of November 15, 1935, in ceremonies held on the steps of the Legislative Building in Manila.
In 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was proclaimed, and the inauguration of President Manuel L. Quezon were held outside the building.