A report on Internet and Communication protocol

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
Figure 2. The TCP/IP model or Internet layering scheme and its relation to some common protocols.
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
Figure 3. Message flows using a protocol suite. Black loops show the actual messaging loops, red loops are the effective communication between layers enabled by the lower layers.
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
Figure 5: Protocol and software layering. The software modules implementing the protocols are represented by cubes. The information flow between the modules is represented by arrows. The (top two horizontal) red arrows are virtual. The blue lines mark the layer boundaries.
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "www.wikipedia.org" to determine the IPV4 Address 207.142.131.234
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426122721/http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|work=W3Techs.com|access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/66ZQzUXh6?url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>

The development of a complete protocol suite by 1989, as outlined in and, laid the foundation for the growth of TCP/IP as a comprehensive protocol suite as the core component of the emerging Internet.

- Communication protocol

The ARPA projects and international working groups led to the development of various protocols and standards by which multiple separate networks could become a single network or "a network of networks".

- Internet
The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel

8 related topics with Alpha

Overall

ARPANET logical map, March 1977

ARPANET

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The first wide-area packet-switched network with distributed control and one of the first networks to implement the TCP/IP protocol suite.

The first wide-area packet-switched network with distributed control and one of the first networks to implement the TCP/IP protocol suite.

ARPANET logical map, March 1977
ARPANET access points in the 1970s
First ARPANET IMP log: the first message ever sent via the ARPANET, 10:30 pm PST on 29 October 1969 (6:30 UTC on 30 October 1969). This IMP Log excerpt, kept at UCLA, describes setting up a message transmission from the UCLA SDS Sigma 7 Host computer to the SRI SDS 940 Host computer.
ARPA network map 1973
Internetworking demonstration, linking the ARPANET, PRNET, and SATNET in 1977
ARPANET in a broader context

Both technologies became the technical foundation of the Internet.

ARPA awarded the contract to build the network to Bolt Beranek & Newman who developed the first protocol for the network.

Diagram of the first internetworked connection

Internet protocol suite

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Diagram of the first internetworked connection
An SRI International Packet Radio Van, used for the first three-way internetworked transmission.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
Encapsulation of application data descending through the layers described in RFC 1122

The Internet protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, is the set of communication protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks.

Encapsulation of application data carried by UDP to a link protocol frame

Internet Protocol

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Encapsulation of application data carried by UDP to a link protocol frame
A timeline for the development of the transmission control Protocol TCP and Internet Protocol IP.
First Internet demonstration, linking the ARPANET, PRNET, and SATNET on November 22, 1977

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the network layer communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.

Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.

Internetworking

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Practice of interconnecting multiple computer networks, such that any pair of hosts in the connected networks can exchange messages irrespective of their hardware-level networking technology.

Practice of interconnecting multiple computer networks, such that any pair of hosts in the connected networks can exchange messages irrespective of their hardware-level networking technology.

The most notable example of internetworking is the Internet, a network of networks based on many underlying hardware technologies.

To build an internetwork, the following are needed: A standardized scheme to address packets to any host on any participating network; a standardized protocol defining format and handling of transmitted packets; components interconnecting the participating networks by routing packets to their destinations based on standardized addresses.

The Internet architecture as seen by the INWG.

International Networking Working Group

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The Internet architecture as seen by the INWG.

The International Networking Working Group (INWG) was a group of prominent computer science researchers in the 1970s who studied and developed standards and protocols for computer networking.

The INWG continued to work on protocol design and formal specification until the 1990s when it disbanded as the Internet grew rapidly.

Kahn in Geneva, May 2013

Bob Kahn

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Kahn in Geneva, May 2013
Vint Cerf and Robert Kahn being awarded the Presidential Medal Of Freedom by President Bush

Robert Elliot Kahn (born December 23, 1938) is an American electrical engineer, who, along with Vint Cerf, first proposed the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet.

He was awarded the SIGCOMM Award in 1993 for "visionary technical contributions and leadership in the development of information systems technology", and shared the 2004 Turing Award with Vint Cerf, for "pioneering work on internetworking, including .. the Internet's basic communications protocols .. and for inspired leadership in networking."

Illustration of starting a passive connection using port 21

File Transfer Protocol

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Illustration of starting a passive connection using port 21

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard communication protocol used for the transfer of computer files from a server to a client on a computer network.

It was never widely accepted on the Internet, and is now assigned Historic status by the IETF.

X.25

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ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet-switched data communication in wide area networks .

ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet-switched data communication in wide area networks .

A Televideo terminal model 925 made around 1982
An X.25 modem once used to connect to the German Datex-P network

This makes it one of the oldest packet-switching communication protocols available; it was developed several years before IPv4 (1981) and the OSI Reference Model (1984).

X.25 was also available in niche applications such as Retronet that allow vintage computers to use the Internet.