Communications satellite

satellite communicationssatellitecommunication satellitesatellite communicationCommunicationsCommunicationSatellite earth stationscommunications satellitesSATCOMtelecommunications satellite
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.wikipedia
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Radio

radio communicationradio communicationswireless
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth. Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet, and military applications.
In radio communication, used in radio and television broadcasting, cell phones, two-way radios, wireless networking and satellite communication among numerous other uses, radio waves are used to carry information across space from a transmitter to a receiver, by modulating the radio signal (impressing an information signal on the radio wave by varying some aspect of the wave) in the transmitter.

Satellite dish

satellite dishesdishsatellite antenna
Many are in geostationary orbit 22,236 mi above the equator, so that the satellite appears stationary at the same point in the sky, so the satellite dish antennas of ground stations can be aimed permanently at that spot and do not have to move to track it.
A satellite dish is a dish-shaped type of parabolic antenna designed to receive or transmit information by radio waves to or from a communication satellite.

Geostationary orbit

GeostationaryGEOgeostationary satellite
Many are in geostationary orbit 22,236 mi above the equator, so that the satellite appears stationary at the same point in the sky, so the satellite dish antennas of ground stations can be aimed permanently at that spot and do not have to move to track it.
Communications satellites are often placed in a geostationary orbit so that Earth-based satellite antennas (located on Earth) do not have to rotate to track them, but can be pointed permanently at the position in the sky where the satellites are located.

Satellite

satellitesartificial satelliteartificial satellites
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.
Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and space telescopes.

Microwave

microwavesmicrowave radiationmicrowave tube
Communications satellites use a wide range of radio and microwave frequencies.
Microwaves are widely used in modern technology, for example in point-to-point communication links, wireless networks, microwave radio relay networks, radar, satellite and spacecraft communication, medical diathermy and cancer treatment, remote sensing, radio astronomy, particle accelerators, spectroscopy, industrial heating, collision avoidance systems, garage door openers and keyless entry systems, and for cooking food in microwave ovens.

SCORE (satellite)

Project SCORESCORE
The first satellite purpose-built to relay communications was NASA's Project SCORE in 1958, which used a tape recorder to store and forward voice messages.
Project SCORE (Signal Communications by Orbiting Relay Equipment) was the world's first purpose-built communications satellite.

Project Echo

Echo 1Echo satelliteEcho 1A
The first artificial satellite used solely to further advances in global communications was a balloon named Echo 1.
Project Echo was the first passive communications satellite experiment.

Telstar

Telstar ITelstar 1Telstar Communications
Telstar was the second active, direct relay communications satellite.
Telstar is the name of various communications satellites.

Communication Moon Relay

Moon Relaynew Navy communications systemPAMOR
Decades later a project named Communication Moon Relay was a telecommunication project carried out by the United States Navy.
Its objective was to develop a secure and reliable method of wireless communication by using the Moon as a natural communications satellite — a technique known as Earth–Moon–Earth communication (EME).

Radio wave

radio wavesradioradio signal
The high frequency radio waves used for telecommunications links travel by line of sight and so are obstructed by the curve of the Earth.
Radio waves are very widely used in modern technology for fixed and mobile radio communication, broadcasting, radar and radio navigation systems, communications satellites, wireless computer networks and many other applications.

Telephone

phonetelephonesLocal Telephone Service
Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet, and military applications.
Satellite technology may be used for communication over very long distances.

Radio receiver

receiverreceiversRadios
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.

Relay program

Relay 1RelayRelay 2 communications satellite
Relay 1 was launched on December 13, 1962, and it became the first satellite to transmit across the Pacific Ocean on November 22, 1963.
Both were primarily experimental communications satellites funded by NASA and developed by RCA.

Geosynchronous orbit

geosynchronousGEOGSO
Syncom 2 was the first communications satellite in a geosynchronous orbit.
Communications satellites are often given geostationary or close to geostationary orbits so that the satellite antennas that communicate with them do not have to move, but can be pointed permanently at the fixed location in the sky where the satellite appears.

Electronics World

Wireless World Electronics World + Wireless World
In October 1945, Clarke published an article titled "Extraterrestrial Relays" in the British magazine Wireless World.
In Wireless World s October 1945 issue, Arthur C. Clarke (then of The British Interplanetary Society) published a now-famous article, "Extra Terrestrial Relays", which foresaw the coming of communications satellites in synchronous orbit around the Earth.

Spacebus

Intelsat-VAS-7000SSL-1300
Spacebuses are typically used for geostationary communications satellites, and seventy-four have been launched since development started in the 1980s.

Television

TVtelevisedtelevisions
Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet, and military applications.
Satellite television is a system of supplying television programming using broadcast signals relayed from communication satellites.

Mars landing

Mars landerland on Marslander
Beginning with the Viking program, all Mars landers, aside from Mars Pathfinder, have used orbiting spacecraft as communications satellites for relaying their data to Earth.
Beginning with the Viking program, all landers on the surface of Mars, aside from Mars Pathfinder, have used orbiting spacecraft as communications satellites for relaying their data to Earth.

Syncom

Syncom 3Syncom 2Syncom 1
An immediate antecedent of the geostationary satellites was the Hughes Aircraft Company's Syncom 2, launched on July 26, 1963.
Syncom (for "synchronous communication satellite") started as a 1961 NASA program for active geosynchronous communication satellites, all of which were developed and manufactured by Hughes Space and Communications.

Iridium satellite constellation

IridiumIridium constellationIridium satellites
Two such constellations, intended to provide satellite phone services, primarily to remote areas, are the Iridium and Globalstar systems.
The omnidirectional antennas which are small enough to be mounted on such a phone, and the low battery power, are insufficient to allow the phone's radio waves to reach a satellite in geostationary orbit, 35785 km above the Earth, the normal orbit of communications satellites, in which the satellite appears stationary in the sky.

Telesat

Telesat CanadaLoral SkynetAnik D1
Telesat, formerly Telesat Canada, is a Canadian satellite communications company founded on May 2, 1969.

Bell Labs

Bell LaboratoriesBell Telephone LaboratoriesAT&T Bell Laboratories
Belonging to AT&T as part of a multi-national agreement between AT&T, Bell Telephone Laboratories, NASA, the British General Post Office, and the French National PTT (Post Office) to develop satellite communications, it was launched by NASA from Cape Canaveral on July 10, 1962, in the first privately sponsored space launch.
Also in 1962, John R. Pierce's vision of communications satellites was realized by the launch of Telstar.

SES S.A.

SESSociété Européenne des SatellitesSES Global
SES S.A. is a communications satellite owner and operator providing video and data connectivity worldwide to broadcasters, content and internet service providers, mobile and fixed network operators, governments and institutions, with a mission to "connect, enable, and enrich".

Intelsat I

Early BirdEarly Bird SatelliteIntelsat 1
Intelsat I (nicknamed Early Bird for the proverb "The early bird catches the worm") was the first commercial communications satellite to be placed in geosynchronous orbit, on April 6, 1965.

Balloon satellite

passive
There are two major classes of communications satellites, passive and active.
It served for testing as a "passive" communication and geodetic satellite.