Communism

communistcommunistscommunist ideologycommunisticcommunist partyredcommunist movementanti-communistCommiesReds
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.wikipedia
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Communist society

communismpure communismstateless communism
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.
In Marxist thought, communist society or the communist system is the type of society and economic system postulated to emerge from technological advances in the productive forces, representing the ultimate goal of the political ideology of Communism.

Political philosophy

political theorypolitical philosopherpolitical theorist
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.
Prior to China's adoption of communism, State Confucianism remained the dominant political philosophy of China up to the 20th century.

Common ownership

community of goodscommon propertyowned collectively
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.
Common ownership of the means of production is a central goal of communist political movements as it is seen as a necessary democratic mechanism for the creation and continued function of a communist society.

Victor d'Hupay

The term "communism" was first coined and defined in its modern definition by the French philosopher and writer Victor d'Hupay.
He is best known as the first theorist of modern communism.

Religious communism

religious communistcommunismreligious
For example, in the medieval Christian church some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property (see religious and Christian communism).
Religious communism is a form of communism that incorporates religious principles.

Proletariat

proletarianproletariansworking class
The two classes are the working class—who must work to survive and who make up the majority within society—and the capitalist class—a minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production.
On the Marxist view, this will endow the proletarian with the power to abolish the conditions that make a person a proletarian and, thus, build communism.

Commune

communalcommunescommunally
This book can be seen as the cornerstone of communist philosophy as d'Hupay defines this lifestyle as a "commune" and advises to "share all economic and material products between inhabitants of the commune, so that all may benefit from everybody's work".
For the usually larger-scale, political entities in communist political theory, see socialist communes, which are similar but distinct social organizations.

Political movement

movementpolitical movementsmovements
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.
Some have represented class interests, such as the Labour movement, socialism, and communism, others have expressed national aspirations, such as anticolonialist movements, Ratana, Zionism, and Sinn Féin.

Christian communism

Christian communist4:32-37Christian Marxist
For example, in the medieval Christian church some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property (see religious and Christian communism).
It is a theological and political theory based upon the view that the teachings of Jesus Christ compel Christians to support communism as the ideal social system.

Thomas More

Sir Thomas MoreMoreSaint Thomas More
Communist thought has also been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More.
The Soviet Union honored him for the purportedly communist attitude toward property rights expressed in Utopia.

Vladimir Lenin

LeninV. I. LeninV.I. Lenin
The 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks, which was the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position.
Ideologically a communist, he developed a variant of Marxism known as Leninism.

Social class

classsocial classesclasses
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.
In The Communist Manifesto, Marx himself argued that it was the goal of the proletariat itself to displace the capitalist system with socialism, changing the social relationships underpinning the class system and then developing into a future communist society in which: "the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all".

Karl Marx

MarxMarxistMarxian
Foremost among these critics were Karl Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels.
For Marx, class antagonisms under capitalism, owing in part to its instability and crisis-prone nature, would eventuate the working class' development of class consciousness, leading to their conquest of political power and eventually the establishment of a classless, communist society constituted by a free association of producers.

Communist revolution

revolutionaryrevolutionsocialist revolution
The moderate Mensheviks (minority) opposed Lenin's Bolshevik (majority) plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more fully developed.
A communist revolution is a proletarian revolution often, but not necessarily inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, typically with socialism as an intermediate stage.

The Communist Manifesto

Communist ManifestoManifesto of the Communist PartyThe Manifesto of the Communist Party
In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto.
It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the conflicts of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms.

Grigory Zinoviev

ZinovievGrigorii ZinovievZinovievite
In the Moscow Trials, many old Bolsheviks who had played prominent roles during the Russian Revolution of 1917 or in Lenin's Soviet government afterwards, including Kamenev, Zinoviev, Rykov and Bukharin, were accused, pleaded guilty of conspiracy against the Soviet Union, and were executed.
Grigory Yevseyevich Zinoviev (September 23 1883 – August 25, 1936), born Hirsch Apfelbaum, known also under the name Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky, was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician.

Projet de communauté philosophe

In his 1777 book Projet de communauté philosophe (English: Philosopher Community Project), d'Hupay pushes the philosophy of the Enlightenment to principles which he lived up to during most of his life in his bastide of Fuveau (Provence).
This book can be seen as a cornerstone in the history of communism, as it describes for the first time how "communists" (people living in a "commune") should understand this philosophy.

Josip Broz Tito

TitoMarshal TitoJosip Broz
saw the emergence of the Soviet Union as a superpower, with strong influence over Eastern Europe and parts of Asia. The European and Japanese empires were shattered and communist parties played a leading role in many independence movements. Marxist–Leninist governments modeled on the Soviet Union took power with Soviet assistance in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Romania. A Marxist–Leninist government was also created under Marshal Tito in Yugoslavia, but Tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform which had replaced the Comintern and Titoism was branded "deviationist". Albania also became an independent Marxist–Leninist state after World War II. Communism was seen as a rival of and a threat to western capitalism for most of the 20th century.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз, ; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито, ), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.

Mazdak

Mazdak revolt in Persia 524 (or 528)Mazdak the ElderMazdak the Younger
The 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia (Iran) has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, for criticizing the institution of private property and for striving to create an egalitarian society.
In many ways Mazdak's teaching can be understood as a call for social revolution, and has been referred to as early "communism".

Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakCzechTCH
saw the emergence of the Soviet Union as a superpower, with strong influence over Eastern Europe and parts of Asia. The European and Japanese empires were shattered and communist parties played a leading role in many independence movements. Marxist–Leninist governments modeled on the Soviet Union took power with Soviet assistance in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Romania. A Marxist–Leninist government was also created under Marshal Tito in Yugoslavia, but Tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform which had replaced the Comintern and Titoism was branded "deviationist". Albania also became an independent Marxist–Leninist state after World War II. Communism was seen as a rival of and a threat to western capitalism for most of the 20th century.
In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution; state price controls were removed after a period of preparation.

Private property

Privateprivate ownershipprivate land
The 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia (Iran) has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, for criticizing the institution of private property and for striving to create an egalitarian society.
Marx's conception of private property has proven influential for many subsequent economic theories and for anarchist, communist and socialist political movements, and led to the widespread association of private property with capitalism.

Russia

🇷🇺RUSRussian
However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous, largely illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers.
The communist regime targeted religions based on State interests, and while most organized religions were never outlawed, religious property was confiscated, believers were harassed, and religion was ridiculed while atheism was propagated in schools.

Communist Party of Brazil

PCdoBCommunist PartyPC do B
The Communist Party of Brazil was a part of the parliamentary coalition led by the ruling democratic socialist Workers' Party until August 2016.
The Communist Party of Brazil (Partido Comunista do Brasil, PCdoB) is a communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Brazil.

Laos

LaotianLaoLao People's Democratic Republic
At present, states controlled by Marxist–Leninist parties under a single-party system include the People's Republic of China, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam.
After the Vietnam War ended in 1975, the Communist Pathet Lao movement came to power, seeing the end to the civil war.

Eastern Europe

EasternEastern EuropeanEast European
saw the emergence of the Soviet Union as a superpower, with strong influence over Eastern Europe and parts of Asia. The European and Japanese empires were shattered and communist parties played a leading role in many independence movements. Marxist–Leninist governments modeled on the Soviet Union took power with Soviet assistance in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Romania. A Marxist–Leninist government was also created under Marshal Tito in Yugoslavia, but Tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform which had replaced the Comintern and Titoism was branded "deviationist". Albania also became an independent Marxist–Leninist state after World War II. Communism was seen as a rival of and a threat to western capitalism for most of the 20th century.
A similar definition names the formerly communist European states outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe.