Communist Party of Czechoslovakia

Communist PartyCommunistKSČGeneral Secretary of the Communisty Party of CzechoslovakiaFirst Secretary of the Communisty Party of CzechoslovakiaCommunistsCzechoslovak Communist PartyChairman of the Communisty Party of Czechoslovakiacommunist governmentCommunist regime
The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Czech and Slovak: Komunistická strana Československa, KSČ) was a Communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992.wikipedia
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Klement Gottwald

GottwaldPresident GottwaldGottwalda
Between 1929 and 1953 it was led by Klement Gottwald. After the war the Party grew rapidly, reaching one million members by the time of the 1946 elections: at these elections it became the largest party in Parliament, and party chairman Klement Gottwald became prime minister in a free election.
Klement Gottwald (23 November 1896 – 14 March 1953) was a Czechoslovak Communist politician, who was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia from 1929 until 1945 and party chairman until his death in 1953.

Alexander Dubček

DubčekAlexander DubcekDubcek
In 1968, party leader Alexander Dubček proposed reforms that included a democratic process and this led to the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Soviet Union.
Alexander Dubček (27 November 1921 – 7 November 1992) was a Slovak politician who served as the First secretary of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) (de facto leader of Czechoslovakia) from January 1968 to April 1969.

Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion
In 1968, party leader Alexander Dubček proposed reforms that included a democratic process and this led to the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Soviet Union.
The invasion successfully stopped Alexander Dubček's Prague Spring liberalisation reforms and strengthened the authority of the authoritarian wing within the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ).

Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia

KSČMCommunist PartyCommunist Party (Bohemia and Moravia)
In November 1990, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia became a federation of the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia and the Communist Party of Slovakia.
The Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia was formed in 1989 by the Congress of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, which decided to create a party for the territories of Bohemia and Moravia (including Czech Silesia), the areas that were to become the Czech Republic.

Communist Party of Slovakia (1939)

Communist Party of SlovakiaCommunist PartyKSS
In November 1990, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia became a federation of the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia and the Communist Party of Slovakia.
It was formed in May 1939, when the Slovak Republic was created, as the Slovak branches of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) were separated from the mother party.

Purge

purgespurgedpurging
Under pressure from the Kremlin, all reforms were repealed, party leadership became taken over by its more authoritarian wing and a massive non-bloody purge of party members was conducted.
Though sudden and violent purges are notable, most purges do not involve immediate execution or imprisonment, for example the periodic massive purges of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia on grounds of apathy or dereliction, or the purge of Jews and political dissenters from the German Civil Service in 1933–1934.

Rudé právo

Rudé právo (Czechoslovakia)
Rudé právo, previously the organ of the Left Social-Democrats, became the main organ of the new party.
Rudé právo (Czech for Red Justice or The Red Truth) was the official newspaper of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.

Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakCzechTCH
The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Czech and Slovak: Komunistická strana Československa, KSČ) was a Communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992.
In the 1946 parliamentary election, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was the winner in the Czech lands, and the Democratic Party won in Slovakia.

One-party state

one-one-partyone-party system
After its election victory in 1946 it seized power in the 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état and established a one-party state allied with the Soviet Union.

1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état

Communist coupcoup d'état1948 coup d'état
After its election victory in 1946 it seized power in the 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état and established a one-party state allied with the Soviet Union. Following the Communist coup d'état of 1948, when free elections and other political freedoms were effectively abolished, power was formally held by the National Front, a coalition in which the KSČ held two-thirds of the seats while the remaining one-third were shared among five other political parties.
The 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état (often simply the Czech coup) (Únor 1948, Február 1948, both meaning "February 1948") – in Marxist historiography known as "Victorious February" (Vítězný únor, Víťazný február) – was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, marking the onset of four decades of communist rule in the country.

Bohumír Šmeral

Bohumir SmeralŠmeral
As a first chairman was elected Václav Šturc, first vice-chairman was Bohumír Šmeral and second vice-chairman was Vaclav Bolen.
Bohumír Šmeral (25 October 1880 in Třebíč, Margraviate of Moravia – 8 May 1941 in Moscow) was a Czech politician, leader of the Czech Social Democratic Party, and one of founders of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.

1946 Czechoslovak parliamentary election

19461946 elections1946 election
After the war the Party grew rapidly, reaching one million members by the time of the 1946 elections: at these elections it became the largest party in Parliament, and party chairman Klement Gottwald became prime minister in a free election.
The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia emerged as the largest party, winning 114 of the 300 seats (93 for the main party and 21 for its Slovak branch) with 38% of the vote (31 percent for the main party and 6.9 percent for the Slovak branch).

National Front (Czechoslovakia)

National FrontCzechoslovak National FrontCzechoslovak People's Party
Following the Communist coup d'état of 1948, when free elections and other political freedoms were effectively abolished, power was formally held by the National Front, a coalition in which the KSČ held two-thirds of the seats while the remaining one-third were shared among five other political parties.
During the Communist era in Czechoslovakia (1948–1989) it was the vehicle for control of all political and social activity by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ).

Slánský trial

Slánský show trialanti-Semitismhuge political trial
They were subjected to a show trial in 1952 (the Prague Trials) and Slánský and 10 other defendants were executed.
The Slánský trial (officially Proces s protistátním spikleneckým centrem Rudolfa Slánského meaning "Trial of anti-state conspiracy centered around Rudolf Slánský") was a show trial against elements of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) who were thought to have adopted the line of the maverick Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito.

Prague Spring

invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia
He started a period of liberalization known as the Prague Spring in which he attempted to implement "socialism with a human face".
It began on 5 January 1968, when reformist Alexander Dubček was elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ), and continued until 21 August 1968 when the Soviet Union and other members of the Warsaw Pact invaded the country to suppress the reforms.

First Czechoslovak Republic

CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak RepublicCzechoslovak
The party was one of some twenty political parties that competed within the democratic framework of the First Czechoslovak Republic, but it was never in government.
The Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party was considerably weakened when the communists seceded in 1921 to form the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, but by 1929 it had begun to regain its strength. A party of moderation, the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party declared in favor of parliamentary democracy in 1930. Antonín Hampl was chairman of the party, and Ivan Dérer was the leader of its Slovak branch.

1929 Czechoslovak parliamentary election

19291929 parliamentary election1929 elections
In 1929 parliamentary election party gained 753,220 votes (10.2%, 4th place) and 30 seats.

1935 Czechoslovak parliamentary election

19351935 parliamentary election1935 election
In 1935 parliamentary election party held its 30 seats with 849,495 votes (10.32%, 4th place)

Act on Illegality of the Communist Regime and on Resistance Against It

declared to be criminal
The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was declared to be a criminal organisation in the Czech Republic by the 1993 Act on Illegality of the Communist Regime and on Resistance Against It.
This act declared the Communist regime in Czechoslovakia (February 25, 1948 – April 23, 1990) as illegal and the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia as a criminal organisation.

Velvet Revolution

fall of communismfall of the communist regime1989
In 1989 the party leadership bowed to popular pressure during the Velvet revolution and agreed to call the first contested election since 1946.
Popular demonstrations against the one-party government of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia combined students and older dissidents.

Rudolf Slánský

SlánskýSlanskySlánský show trial
A dispute broke out between Gottwald and the second most-powerful man in the country, party General Secretary Rudolf Slánský, over the extent to which Czechoslovakia should conform with the Soviet model.
In 1921, Slánský joined the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia when it broke away from the Social Democratic Party.

Socialism with a human face

a human facedemocracy-oriented reforms in Czechoslovakiadeveloped socialism
He started a period of liberalization known as the Prague Spring in which he attempted to implement "socialism with a human face".
Socialism with a human face (in Czech: socialismus s lidskou tváří, in Slovak: socializmus s ľudskou tvárou) was a political programme announced by Alexander Dubček and his colleagues agreed at Presidium of Communist Party of Czechoslovakia on April 1968 after he became the chairman of the Party in January 1968.

Gustáv Husák

HusákGustav HusákHusakian
In April 1969, Dubček lost the General Secretaryship (replaced by Gustáv Husák) and was expelled in 1970.
In 1933, when he started his studies at the Law Faculty of the Comenius University in Bratislava, he joined the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) which was banned from 1938 to 1945.

Normalization (Czechoslovakia)

normalizationnormalisationNormalization period
During the following Normalization period, the party was dominated by two major factions—the moderates and the hardliners.
It was characterized by the restoration of the conditions prevailing before the Prague Spring reform period led by First Secretary Alexander Dubček of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) earlier in 1968 and the subsequent preservation of the new status quo.