Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Communist PartyCPSUSoviet Communist PartyPartyRussian Communist PartyAll-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)Bolshevik PartyCommunistAll-Union Communist Party
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.wikipedia
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One-party state

one-one-partyone-party system
The CPSU was the sole governing party of the Soviet Union until 1990, when the Congress of People's Deputies modified Article 6 of the most recent 1977 Soviet constitution, which had granted the CPSU a monopoly over the political system.
The Soviet government argued that multiple parties represented the class struggle, which was absent in Soviet society, and so the Soviet Union only had one party, namely the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Vladimir Lenin

LeninV. I. LeninV.I. Lenin
The party was founded in 1912 by the Bolsheviks (a majority faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, RSDLP), led by Vladimir Lenin, which seized power in the October Revolution, the second of the Russian Revolutions of 1917.
Under his administration, Russia and then the wider Soviet Union became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party.

Mikhail Gorbachev

GorbachevMr. GorbachevPresident Gorbachev
After 74 years, the party was dissolved on 29 August 1991 on Soviet territory, soon after a failed coup d'état by hard-line CPSU leaders against Soviet president and party general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, and was completely outlawed three months later on 6 November 1991 in Russian territory.
The eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, he was General Secretary of the governing Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991.

Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Central CommitteeCentral Committee of the Communist PartyCPSU Central Committee
When the Congress was not in session, the Central Committee was the highest body.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the executive leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, acting between sessions of Congress.

Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Party CongressParty CongressesCommunist Party Congress
The highest body within the CPSU was the Party Congress, which convened every five years.
The Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the supreme decision-making body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt

August Coupcoupcoup attempt
After 74 years, the party was dissolved on 29 August 1991 on Soviet territory, soon after a failed coup d'état by hard-line CPSU leaders against Soviet president and party general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, and was completely outlawed three months later on 6 November 1991 in Russian territory.
The coup leaders were hard-line members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) who were opposed to Gorbachev's reform program and the new union treaty that he had negotiated which decentralized much of the central government's power to the republics.

Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

PolitburoPresidiumSoviet Politburo
Because the Central Committee met twice a year, most day-to-day duties and responsibilities were vested in the Politburo, (previously the Presidium), the Secretariat and the Orgburo (until 1952).
The Politburo (, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС, Politbyuro TsK KPSS) was the highest policy-making government authority under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

General SecretaryFirst SecretaryFirst Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
The party leader was the head of government and held the office of either General Secretary, Premier or head of state, or some of the three offices concurrently—but never all three at the same time.
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries.

Russian Social Democratic Labour Party

RSDLPRussian Social Democratic Labor PartySocial Democrat
The party was founded in 1912 by the Bolsheviks (a majority faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, RSDLP), led by Vladimir Lenin, which seized power in the October Revolution, the second of the Russian Revolutions of 1917.
Formed to unite the various revolutionary organizations of the Russian Empire into one party in 1898, the RSDLP later split into Bolsheviks (majority) and Mensheviks (minority) factions, with the Bolshevik faction eventually becoming the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Joseph Stalin

StalinJosef StalinJosif Stalin
In 1929, as Joseph Stalin became the leader of the party, Marxism–Leninism, a fusion of the original ideas of German philosopher and economic theorist Karl Marx, and Lenin, became formalized as the party's guiding ideology and would remain so throughout the rest of its existence.
Initially presiding over an oligarchic one-party system that governed by plurality, he became the de facto dictator of the Soviet state by the 1930s while holding the posts of General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952) and Premier (1941–1953).

Premier of the Soviet Union

ChairmanPremierSoviet Premier
The party leader was the head of government and held the office of either General Secretary, Premier or head of state, or some of the three offices concurrently—but never all three at the same time.
Two of the twelve Premiers died in office of natural causes (Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin), three resigned (Alexei Kosygin, Nikolai Tikhonov and Ivan Silayev) and three had the offices of party secretary and Premier simultaneously (Lenin, Stalin and Nikita Khrushchev).

Nikita Khrushchev

KhrushchevNikita Sergeyevich KhrushchevKhruschev
After recovering from the Second World War, reforms were implemented which decentralized economic planning and liberalized Soviet society in general under Nikita Khrushchev.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.

Orgburo

Organizational BureauOrganisation BureauOrganisational Bureau
Because the Central Committee met twice a year, most day-to-day duties and responsibilities were vested in the Politburo, (previously the Presidium), the Secretariat and the Orgburo (until 1952).
The Orgburo, also known as the Organisational Bureau, of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union existed from 1919 to 1952, until it was abolished at the 19th Congress of the Communist Party and its functions were transferred to the enlarged Secretariat.

Cold War

the Cold Warcold-warCold War era
By 1980, various factors, including the continuing Cold War, and ongoing nuclear arms race with the United States and other Western European powers and unaddressed inefficiencies in the economy, led to stagnant economic growth under Alexei Kosygin, and further with Leonid Brezhnev and a growing disillusionment.
The USSR was a Marxist–Leninist state led by its Communist Party, which in turn was dominated by a leader with different titles over time, and a small committee called the Politburo.

Leonid Brezhnev

BrezhnevBrezhnev, LeonidBrezhnevite
By 1980, various factors, including the continuing Cold War, and ongoing nuclear arms race with the United States and other Western European powers and unaddressed inefficiencies in the economy, led to stagnant economic growth under Alexei Kosygin, and further with Leonid Brezhnev and a growing disillusionment.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician of Ukrainian descent, who led the Soviet Union from 1964 until his death in 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU).

Perestroika

perestroykarestructuringGorbachev reforms
Gorbachev and his allies envisioned the introduction of an economy similar to Lenin's earlier New Economic Policy through a program of "perestroika", or restructuring, but their reforms along with the institution of free multiparty elections led to a decline in the party's power, and after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the banning of the party by later last RSFSR President Boris Yeltsin and subsequent first President of an evolving democratic and free market economy of the successor Russian Federation.
Perestroika was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s and 1990s and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.

Communist Party of the Russian Federation

Communist PartyCommunistCPRF
In Russia, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation emerged and has been regarded as the inheritor of the CPSU's old Bolshevik legacy into the present day.
The party is often viewed as the immediate successor of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), which was banned in 1991 by then-Russian President Boris Yeltsin after a failed coup attempt.

Communist Party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

local branch
In the final years of the CPSU's existence, the Communist Parties of the federal subjects of Russia were united into the Communist Party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR).
The Communist Party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Коммунистическая партия Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики, Kommunisticheskaya partiya Rossiyskoy Sovetskoy Federativnoy Sotsialisticheskoy Respubliki) was a republican level branch of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union. After the founding of the Soviet Union in 1922, Lenin had introduced a mixed economy, commonly referred to as the New Economic Policy, which allowed for capitalist practices to resume under the Communist Party dictation in order to develop the necessary conditions for socialism to become a practical pursuit in the economically undeveloped country.
The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR).

Communist party

communist partiesmass organizationCommunist
The CPSU was a Communist party, organized on the basis of democratic centralism.
The Bolshevik party, which eventually became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, took power in Russia after the October Revolution in 1917.

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

fall of the Soviet Unioncollapse of the Soviet Uniondissolution of the USSR
Gorbachev and his allies envisioned the introduction of an economy similar to Lenin's earlier New Economic Policy through a program of "perestroika", or restructuring, but their reforms along with the institution of free multiparty elections led to a decline in the party's power, and after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the banning of the party by later last RSFSR President Boris Yeltsin and subsequent first President of an evolving democratic and free market economy of the successor Russian Federation.
Under Gorbachev's leadership, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in 1989 introduced limited competitive elections to a new central legislature, the Congress of People's Deputies (although the ban on other political parties was not lifted until 1990).

List of leaders of the Soviet Union

leader of the Soviet UnionSoviet leaderleader
The party leader was the head of government and held the office of either General Secretary, Premier or head of state, or some of the three offices concurrently—but never all three at the same time.
Being the head of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), the office of the General Secretary was the highest in the Soviet Union until 1990.

New Economic Policy

NEPN.E.P.New Economic Policy (NEP)
After the founding of the Soviet Union in 1922, Lenin had introduced a mixed economy, commonly referred to as the New Economic Policy, which allowed for capitalist practices to resume under the Communist Party dictation in order to develop the necessary conditions for socialism to become a practical pursuit in the economically undeveloped country.
The Bolshevik government adopted the NEP in the course of the 10th Congress of the All-Russian Communist Party (March 1921) and promulgated it by a decree on 21 March 1921: "On the Replacement of Prodrazvyorstka by Prodnalog". Further decrees refined the policy.

Pravda

Pravda.rudefunct newspaperMcPravda
Up to July these policies were disseminated through 41 publications, Pravda being the main paper, with a readership of 320,000.
Pravda (, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, formerly the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million.

Bolsheviks

BolshevikBolshevismBolshevist
The party was founded in 1912 by the Bolsheviks (a majority faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, RSDLP), led by Vladimir Lenin, which seized power in the October Revolution, the second of the Russian Revolutions of 1917. In Russia, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation emerged and has been regarded as the inheritor of the CPSU's old Bolshevik legacy into the present day.
They ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.