Communist state

Communist regimecommunist countriescommunistcommunist statescommunist governmentworkers' statecommunist regimesMarxist–Leninist statecommunist countryCommunist rule
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as Marxist–Leninist state or workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy.wikipedia
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Socialist state

socialist republicsocialistsocialist countries
However, contrary to Western usage, these states do not describe themselves as "communist" nor do they claim to have achieved communism—they refer to themselves as Socialist or Workers' states that are in the process of constructing socialism.
The term "communist state" is often used interchangeably in the West specifically when referring to single-party socialist states governed by Marxist–Leninist, or Titoist in case of Yugoslavia political parties, despite these countries being officially socialist states in the process of building socialism.

One-party state

one-partyone-one-party system
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as Marxist–Leninist state or workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy.
The term "communist state" is sometimes used in the West to describe states in which the ruling party subscribes to a form of Marxism–Leninism.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
These parties usually are Marxist–Leninist or some variation thereof (including Maoism in China), with the official aim of achieving socialism and progressing toward a communist society.
China is a unitary one-party socialist republic and is one of the few remaining Communist states.

Revolutions of 1989

fall of communismthe fall of the Iron Curtaincollapse of communism
In 1989, the Communist states in Eastern Europe collapsed under public pressure during a wave of non-violent movements which led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Romania was the only Eastern Bloc country whose citizens overthrew its Communist regime violently.

Vladimir Lenin

LeninV. I. LeninVladimir Ilyich Lenin
The doctrine of democratic centralism, which was developed by Vladimir Lenin as a set of principles to be used in the internal affairs of the Communist party, is extended to society at large.
Under his administration, Russia and then the wider Soviet Union became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party.

Marxism–Leninism

Marxism-LeninismMarxist-LeninistMarxist–Leninist
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as Marxist–Leninist state or workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy.
Extrapolating from five philosophical bases of Marxism — (i) that human history is the history of class struggle, between a ruling class and an exploited class; (ii) that capitalism creates antagonistic social classes: the bourgeois exploiters and the exploited proletariat; (iii) that capitalism employs nationalist war to further private economic expansion; (iv) that socialism is an economic system that voids social classes through public ownership of the means of production, and so will eliminate the economic causes of war; and (v) that once the state (socialist or communist) withers away, so shall international relations wither away, because they are projections of national economic forces — Lenin said that the capitalists' exhaustion of domestic sources of investment profit, by way of price-fixing trusts and cartels, then prompts the same capitalists to export investment capital to undeveloped countries to finance the exploitation of natural resources and the native populations, and to create new markets.

Presidium

Praesidiumpresidium memberPrezydium
When the national legislative body is not in session, its powers are transferred to a smaller council (often called a presidium) which combines legislative and executive power and in some Communist states (such as the Soviet Union before 1990), acts as a collective head of state.
In Communist states the presidium is the permanent committee of the legislative body, such as the Supreme Soviet in the USSR.

Communist society

stateless communismcommunismpure communism
These parties usually are Marxist–Leninist or some variation thereof (including Maoism in China), with the official aim of achieving socialism and progressing toward a communist society.
The term communist society should be distinguished from the Western concept of the communist state, the latter referring to a truly socialist state ruled by a party which professes a variation of Marxism–Leninism.

Socialism

socialistsocialistssocialistic
However, contrary to Western usage, these states do not describe themselves as "communist" nor do they claim to have achieved communism—they refer to themselves as Socialist or Workers' states that are in the process of constructing socialism.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of former Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact which included the People's Republic of Poland, the German Democratic Republic, the People's Republic of Hungary, the People's Republic of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the Socialist Republic of Romania, the People's Socialist Republic of Albania and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Vietnam

Viet NamSocialist Republic of VietnamViệt Nam
Communist states were also established in Cambodia, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam.
Vietnam is a unitary Marxist-Leninist one-party socialist republic, one of the two communist states (the other being Laos) in Southeast Asia.

Eastern Bloc

Soviet blocCommunist BlocSocialist Bloc
Philipp Ther posits that there was an increase in the standard of living throughout Eastern Bloc countries as the result of modernization programs under Communist governments.
The Eastern Bloc (also the Socialist Bloc, the Communist Bloc, and the Soviet Bloc) was the group of communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, East Asia, and Southeast Asia under the hegemony of the Soviet Union (USSR) during the Cold War (1947–1991) in opposition to the capitalist Western Bloc.

Head of state

heads of stateChief of Stateheads of states
When the national legislative body is not in session, its powers are transferred to a smaller council (often called a presidium) which combines legislative and executive power and in some Communist states (such as the Soviet Union before 1990), acts as a collective head of state.
The armed forces of the Communist states are under the absolute control of the Communist Party.

Committee

standing committeeexecutive committeesteering committee
There have been several instances of Communist states with functioning political participation processes involving several other non-party organisations, such as trade unions, factory committees and direct democratic participation.
In those states where it constituted the state power, the Central Committee made decisions for the party between congresses, and usually was (at least nominally) responsible for electing the Politburo.

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

SFR YugoslaviaYugoslaviaFPR Yugoslavia
Most Communist states in Eastern Europe were allied with the Soviet Union, except for Yugoslavia which declared itself non-aligned.
Until 1948, the new communist government originally sided with the Eastern Bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, Yugoslavia pursued a policy of neutrality.

People's Socialist Republic of Albania

AlbaniaPeople's Republic of AlbaniaCommunist Albania
Albania (, ; Shqipëri/Shqipëria; ), officially as the People's Socialist Republic of Albania, was ruled by a Marxist-Leninist government from 1946 to 1992.

Russia

Russian FederationRUSRussian
The communist regime targeted religions based on State interests, and while most organized religions were never outlawed, religious property was confiscated, believers were harassed, and religion was ridiculed while atheism was propagated in schools.

Polish People's Republic

People's Republic of PolandPolandCommunist Poland
Having a unitary Marxist–Leninist communist government imposed by the Soviet Union following World War II, it was also one of the main signatories of the Warsaw Pact.

People's Republic of Bulgaria

BulgariaCommunist BulgariaBulgarian People's Republic
The BCP modelled its policies after those of the Soviet Union, transforming the country over the course of a decade from an agrarian peasant society into an industrialized socialist society.

Socialist Republic of Romania

communist regimeRomaniaCommunist Romania
The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.

Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

CzechoslovakiaCommunist CzechoslovakiaČSSR
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech and Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR) was the name of Czechoslovakia from 1948 to 23 April 1990, when the country was under communist rule.

East Germany

East GermanGerman Democratic RepublicGDR
Commonly described as a communist state in English usage, it described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state."

Democratic Government of Albania

1944Albaniacommunist government
From the outset, the Democratic Government was a Communist state.

Slovak Soviet Republic

PrešovSlovakiaThis army
The Slovak Soviet Republic (Slovak: Slovenská republika rád, Hungarian: Szlovák Tanácsköztársaság, Ukrainian: Словацька Радянська Республіка, literally: "Slovak Republic of Councils") was a short-lived Communist state in southeast Slovakia in existence from 16 June 1919 to 7 July 1919.

Poland

PolishPOLRepublic of Poland
The Soviet Union instituted a new communist government in Poland, analogous to much of the rest of the Eastern Bloc.